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Paraphrase怎么做?Paraphrase技巧总结

发布时间:2021-07-08 14:59:17 阅读:3862 作者:致远教育 字数:1521 字 预计阅读时间:5分钟
导读:释义,paraphrase,由两个词根para(modifying)和phrase(tell)拼接而成,意思就是用自己的话再现原文的意思(但是不能包含自己的观点)。也就是一种同义转译,用词不同,但所表达的意思相同。那么Paraphrase怎么做?本文致远教育小编为大家总结P...

在学术论文撰写过程中,不可避免要提及或者用到其他人的思想、观点或者数据,为了避免涉嫌抄袭,我们可以采用对原文加引号引用、释义改写(paraphrase),或者总结(summarize)、再标明出处的方式告诉读者文献来源。

paraphrase怎么做?paraphrase技巧总结

在引用、释义和总结这三种方式里面,释义对于很多学生来说,可能是比较难的一种。释义,paraphrase,由两个词根para (modifying)和phrase (tell)拼接而成,意思就是用自己的话再现原文的意思(但是不能包含自己的观点)。也就是一种同义转译,用词不同,但所表达的意思相同。那么Paraphrase怎么做?本文致远教育小编为大家总结Paraphrase技巧

需要注意的是,在释义的时候,强调要用自己的语言来写,因此首先要尽量避免使用原文的词汇和短语;同时,释义也不仅仅是替换单词和短语,更要改变原文的结构,包括句子结构和语篇结构。

牛津大学官网在对剽窃的定义里面,将不合格的释义同样也看作是剽窃的一种。

Paraphrasing the work of others by altering a few words and changing their order, or by closely following the structure of their argument, is plagiarism if you do not give due acknowledgement to the author whose work you are using. A passing reference to the original author in your own text may not be enough; you must ensure that you do not create the misleading impression that the paraphrased wording or the sequence of ideas are entirely your own. 

如果你没有对所使用著作的作者给予应有的承认,通过改变一些单词和顺序,或者高度模仿别人论点的结构来进行释义,就是剽窃。在你自己的文本中仅仅提及原作者可能是不够的;你必须确保让人误以为改写的措辞或思路的顺序完全是你自己的。

Paraphrase技巧总结

如果你的英文足够好,就算写学术论文也不需要花太大的力气,那么直接将要释义的文字转化成你自己的文字应该也不难。但是如果在英文写作方面有所欠缺,或者完全不明白如何释义,下面的方法应该还是值得借鉴的。

1) 阅读理解原文。

2) 一一列举主要观点。

a.找到重要的观点——关键词/短语.

b.找到这些关键词/短语的替换词或同义词。专业词汇与常用词汇不需要替换。

3) 改变原文的组织和结构 (不要使用原来的句子结构)。

a.确定词汇/想法之间的意义关系,比如因果关系、总分关系等等。

b.用不同的方式表达这些关系。

c.改变原文的语法,比如将名词改为动词、形容词改为副词、主动语态改为被动语态、分解长句、合并短句等等。

4) 把主要观点改写成完整的句子,再把各个句子合并成连续的文字。

5) 检查。

a.确保意思和原文相同,不要强调任何一点,也不要添加自己的想法或观点。

b.确保长度与原文大致相同。

c.要有自己的风格。

d.标明出处。

看下面的例子:

It has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, but no-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month.

Paraphrase:

Although Cairo has been the world's most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.

对比前后两个版本,我们很容易发现,词汇上很明显发生了很大的改变。在语法上,原文的并列句变成了带一个原因状语从句的主从复合句;而且前半句的被动语态变成了主动语态,后半句的主动语态则变成了被动语态。

再看下面一段文字:

Statements that seem complimentary in one context may be inappropriate in another. For example, women in business are usually uncomfortable if male colleagues or superiors compliment them on their appearance: the comments suggest that the women are being treated as visual decoration rather than as contributing workers.

Paraphrase A:

Words or expressions which appear favorable in one situation might be improper in a different situation. For instance, employed females are often uneasy when they are given positive comments on their looks. These remarks imply that the females are being viewed as adornment instead of as productive employees (Locker,2003).

这一段paraphrase和原文比,词汇的替换做得很好,但也仅止于此,所以,不算是一篇合格的paraphrase。首先,它的结构过于接近原文,不管是句子还是语篇;其次,去掉了原文中对于有可能将女性看成花瓶的限定人male colleagues or superiors,所以意思出现了偏差。再看一个版本:

Paraphrase B:

Some statements may be inappropriate in one context, even though they are complimentary in another. Compliments by male colleagues or superiors regarding a female coworker’s appearance, for example, often make the woman feel uncomfortable. Instead of treating the women as contributing workers, men obviously think of them as visual decoration (Locker, 2003).

很明显,这个释义在改变句子结构方面做得更好,但是用了太多原文中的词。此外,它也出现了意思偏差的情况,men obviously think of… (人们显然认为…)肯定是原文没有的,原文只是说suggest;观点的顺序也和原文相同。

Paraphrase C:

Women may feel uneasy upon receiving ordinarily positive comments on their appearance from male coworkers or supervisors. To these women, the remarks carry an implied meaning: instead of being thought of as productive employees, they are actually being viewed as just a pretty part of the atmosphere. Depending on the situation, words or expressions which appear favorable may actually be unsuitable in a conversation (Locker, 2003).

这一篇无疑是最好的。这个释义是最有效的。除了改变词汇和句子结构外,它还包括了所有要点,保留了原文的意思。它也改变了观点的顺序。

通过分析上述的三篇paraphrase,我们应该很清楚什么样的paraphrase才是合格、有效的。知道了标准,按照这个标准思考、写作,写出好的paraphrase才有可能。

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