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双语阅读:学术写作概论

发布时间:2021-04-16 10:42:27 阅读:554 作者:致远教育 字数:2843 字 预计阅读时间:8分钟
导读:每个学科的学生、教授和研究员都使用学术写作来传达思想、进行论证和进行学术对话。学术写作的特点是以证据为基础的论证,拥有精确的词语选择,按逻辑组织并采用客观的语气。虽然有时被误认为要长篇大论或写得高深莫测,但强有力的学术写作恰恰与此相反:它应以直截了当的方式告知、分析和说服,...

每个学科的学生、教授和研究员都使用学术写作来传达思想、进行论证和进行学术对话。学术写作的特点是以证据为基础的论证,拥有精确的词语选择,按逻辑组织并采用客观的语气。虽然有时被误认为要长篇大论或写得高深莫测,但强有力的学术写作恰恰与此相反:它应以直截了当的方式告知、分析和说服,并使读者能够进行批判性的学术对话。

Students, professors, and researchers in every discipline use academic writing to convey ideas, make arguments, and engage in scholarly conversation. Academic writing is characterized by evidence-based arguments, precise word choice, logical organization, and an impersonal tone. Though sometimes thought of as long-winded or inaccessible, strong academic writing is quite the opposite: It informs, analyzes, and persuades in a straightforward manner and enables the reader to engage critically in a scholarly dialogue.

学术写作示例

Examples of Academic Writing 

当然,学术写作是在学术环境中产生的任何正式的书面作品。虽然学术写作有多种形式,但以下是一些最常见的形式。

Academic writing is, of course, any formal written work produced in an academic setting. While academic writing comes in many forms, the following are some of the most common.

文学分析:一篇文学分析文章用于对一部文学作品进行检查、评价和论证。顾名思义,一篇文学分析论文不仅仅只是总结。它需要仔细仔细阅读一个或多个文本,并且通常集中在一个特定的特征、主题或目标上。

Literary analysis: A literary analysis essay examines, evaluates, and makes an argument about a literary work. As its name suggests, a literary analysis essay goes beyond mere summarization. It requires careful close reading of one or multiple texts and often focuses on a specific characteristic, theme, or motif.

研究论文:研究论文是利用外部信息来源来支持论点或进行论证的研究论文。研究论文在所有学科中都出现,其特征可能是评估、分析或批评。常见的研究来源包括(自己得到的)数据、主要来源(如历史记录)和次要来源(如同行评议的学术文章)。写一篇研究论文需要用你自己的想法综合这些外部信息。

Research paper: A research paper uses outside information to support a thesis or make an argument. Research papers are written in all disciplines and may be evaluative, analytical, or critical in nature. Common research sources include data, primary sources (e.g., historical records), and secondary sources (e.g., peer-reviewed scholarly articles). Writing a research paper involves synthesizing this external information with your own ideas.

学位论文:学位论文是在博士课程结束时提交的文件。这篇论文是对这位博士生研究成果的一本书似的总结。

Dissertation: A dissertation (or thesis) is a document submitted at the conclusion of a Ph.D. program. The dissertation is a book-length summarization of the doctoral candidate’s research.

学术论文可以作为一门课的一部分,存在于一个研究项目中,或者由不同的作者在学术期刊或学术书籍中发表。

Academic papers may be done as a part of a class, in a program of study, or for publication in an academic journal or scholarly book of articles around a theme, by different authors.

学术写作特征

Characteristics of Academic Writing

大多数学科都采用自己的习惯文体。然而,一切学术写作都享有一些共同特点。

Most academic disciplines employ their own stylistic conventions. However, all academic writing shares certain characteristics.

清晰而有限的焦点问题。学术论文的焦点论点或研究问题是由最先出现的论题声明(thesis statement)确立的。论文的每一段和每一句话都与这一焦点联系在一起。虽然论文可能包含背景或背景信息,但所有内容都是为了支持论题声明。

Clear and limited focus. The focus of an academic paper—the argument or research question—is established early by the thesis statement. Every paragraph and sentence of the paper connects back to that primary focus. While the paper may include background or contextual information, all content serves the purpose of supporting the thesis statement.

逻辑结构。所有的学术写作都遵循逻辑、直截了当的结构。在最简单的形式中,学术写作包括引言、正文段落和结论。引言部分提供了背景资料,阐述了本文的研究范围和方向,并对论题进行了声明。正文段落用于支持论题声明,每个正文段落阐述一个(对所声明的论题的)支撑点。结论部分回顾论文,总结论文的主要观点,并强调论文研究结果的意义。每一个句子和段落都与下一个句子和段落有逻辑联系,以便提出一个明确的论点。

Logical structure. All academic writing follows a logical, straightforward structure. In its simplest form, academic writing includes an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The introduction provides background information, lays out the scope and direction of the essay, and states the thesis. The body paragraphs support the thesis statement, with each body paragraph elaborating on one supporting point. The conclusion refers back to the thesis, summarizes the main points, and highlights the implications of the paper’s findings. Each sentence and paragraph logically connects to the next in order to present a clear argument.

基于证据的论证。学术写作需要见多识广的论证。声明必须有证据支持,无论是来自学术来源(如来自某研究论文)、研究或实验的结果,还是来自对主要文本(如文学分析文章)的引述。证据的使用使得论证可信。

Evidence-based arguments. Academic writing requires well-informed arguments. Statements must be supported by evidence, whether from scholarly sources (as in a research paper), results of a study or experiment, or quotations from a primary text (as in a literary analysis essay). The use of evidence gives credibility to an argument.

非个人语气。学术写作的目的是从客观的角度表达一个合乎逻辑的论点。学术写作应避免情绪化、煽动性或其他偏颇的语言。无论你个人同意还是不同意一个观点,你的论文必须准确、客观地陈述它。

Impersonal tone. The goal of academic writing is to convey a logical argument from an objective standpoint. Academic writing avoids emotional, inflammatory, or otherwise biased language. Whether you personally agree or disagree with an idea, it must be presented accurately and objectively in your paper.

大多数发表的论文也有摘要:这是对论文要素的简要总结。摘要会出现在学术数据库的搜索结果中,这样读者就可以快速确定论文是否与自己的研究相关。

Most published papers also have abstracts: brief summaries of the most important points of the paper. Abstracts appear in academic database search results so that readers can quickly determine whether the paper is pertinent to their own research.

thesis statement的重要性

论题(命题或主题)声明的重要性

The Importance of Thesis Statements

假设你刚刚完成了文学课的一篇分析文章。如果一位同学或教授问你这篇文章是什么,关于这篇文章的重点是什么,你应该能够用一句话清晰简洁地回答。这句话就是你的论题声明。

Let’s say you’ve just finished an analytical essay for your literature class. If a peer or professor asks you what the essay is about—what the point of the essay is—you should be able to respond clearly and concisely in a single sentence. That single sentence is your thesis statement.

处在第一段结尾处的论题声明是一个你文章主要思想的一句话概括。它用于引出一个总体论点,也可以确定论点的主要支持点。从本质上讲,论题声明是一个路线图,告诉读者论文要去哪里,以及如何到达那里。

The thesis statement, found at the end of the first paragraph, is a one-sentence encapsulation of your essay’s main idea. It presents an overarching argument and may also identify the main support points for the argument. In essence, the thesis statement is a road map, telling the reader where the paper is going and how it will get there.

论题声明在写作过程中起着重要的作用。一旦你写了一个论题声明,你就为你的论文确立了一个明确的重点。经常引用论题声明可以防止你在起草阶段偏离主题。当然,论题声明可以(也应该)修改,以反映论文内容或方向的变化。毕竟,它的最终目标是清晰而具体地抓住你论文的主要思想。

The thesis statement plays an important role in the writing process. Once you’ve written a thesis statement, you’ve established a clear focus for your paper. Frequently referring back to that thesis statement will prevent you from straying off-topic during the drafting phase. Of course, the thesis statement can (and should) be revised to reflect changes in the content or direction of the paper. Its ultimate goal, after all, is to capture the main ideas of your paper with clarity and specificity.

学术写作需要避免的错误

需要避免的错误

Common Mistakes to Avoid

各个领域的学术作者都在写作过程中面临着相似的挑战。你可以通过避免这些常见错误来提高自己的学术写作水平。

Academic writers from every field face similar challenges during the writing process. You can improve your own academic writing by avoiding these common mistakes.

冗长。学术写作的目的是以清晰、简洁的方式表达复杂的思想。不要用令人费解的语言来混淆视听。如果你发现自己写了一个超过25个单词的句子,试着把它分成两个或三个独立的句子以提高可读性。

Wordiness. The goal of academic writing is to convey complex ideas in a clear, concise manner. Don’t muddy the meaning of your argument by using confusing language. If you find yourself writing a sentence over 25 words long, try to divide it into two or three separate sentences for improved readability.

模糊的或缺失的论题声明。论题声明是学术论文中最重要的一句话。你的论题声明必须清晰明了,每一个正文段落都必须与论题相联系。

A vague or missing thesis statement. The thesis statement is the single most important sentence in any academic paper. Your thesis statement must be clear, and each body paragraph needs to tie into that thesis.

非正式语言。学术写作在语气上是正式的,不应包括俚语、习语或口语。

Informal language. Academic writing is formal in tone and should not include slang, idioms, or conversational language.

没有分析的描述。不要简单地重复参考文献中的想法或论点。相反,分析这些论点并解释它们与你的观点之间的关系。

Description without analysis. Do not simply repeat the ideas or arguments from your source materials. Rather, analyze those arguments and explain how they relate to your point. 

没有引用消息来源。在整个研究和写作过程中都要跟踪你的原始资料。使用一个格式(MLA格式、APA格式或芝加哥格式,取决于项目开始时提供的指南)来引用它们。任何不是你自己的想法都需要被引用,不管是被转述还是直接引用,以避免抄袭。

Not citing sources. Keep track of your source materials throughout the research and writing process. Cite them consistently using one style manual (MLA, APA, or Chicago Manual of Style, depending on the guidelines given to you at the outset of the project). Any ideas that are not your own need to be cited, whether they're paraphrased or quoted directly, to avoid plagiarism.

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