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Introduction常用逻辑结构和句式结构

发布时间:2020-11-11 15:19:58 阅读:150 作者:致远教育 字数:4104 字 预计阅读时间:13分钟
导读:相信每位留学生在写作业的时候都有这样的感觉:Introduction是最难写,也是最耗费时间的部分。一个好的Introduction可以全面概述论文的主题和目的,让阅卷老师和读者眼前一亮。

相信每位留学生在写作业的时候都有这样的感觉:Introduction是最难写,也是最耗费时间的部分。一个好的Introduction可以全面概述论文的主题和目的,让阅卷老师和读者眼前一亮。

什么是Introduction呢?

Introduction是论文的序幕,目的是向读者介绍本研究的“前世今生”。

总的来说,Introduction既是对过去和现在研究的系统精炼性的介绍、评价和总结;又是对本篇研究工作的提纲挈领的总结,提出科学假说,概括研究方法和研究结果,突出研究的创新性和研究意义,从而进一步吸引读者兴趣。

Introduction通常占整篇文章的5-10%,可怕的是,如果英文水平捉襟见肘点,那么整篇论文简直就是大型灾难现场。

地道的英语多用被动语态,句式也丰富多变。多掌握一些常用句式能够很快的帮我们搭建文章的结构,增加文章的可读性,理顺行文思路。

咱们今天就一起学习一下Introduction的常用逻辑结构和常用句式结构吧。

Introduction常用的逻辑结构

1.表述研究主题的价值、意义;

2.简要回顾领域内的相关学术文献;

3.目前存在的问题、争议或知识缺口;

4.介绍本研究的目的、研究问题或假设;

5.提供研究设计和方法的概要;

6.解释研究的意义或价值;

7.提供论文整体结构的概述。

具体举例

a)题XXX是重要的;

b)以往研究A、B曾经研究过这个问题;

c)但A、B的局限性和缺陷是XXX;

d)我们提出了新方法C/发现了新的C现象;

e)C的基本特征,和A、B进行比较;

f)实验证明C比A、B优越;

g)文章的基本结构,大纲。

根据上面总结的Introduction的7个逻辑结构,我们再看看它有哪些常用的句型,以下是曼彻斯特大学官网给出的官方标准版,大家可以用作参考。

01.表述研究主题对世界或社会的重要性

1.X is fundamental to …

2.X has a pivotal role in …

3.X is frequently prescribed for …

4.X is fast becoming a key instrument in …

5.X plays a vital role in the metabolism of …

6.X plays a critical role in the maintenance of …

7.Xs have emerged as powerful platforms for …

8.X is essential for a wide range of technologies.

9.X can play an important role in addressing the issue of …

10.Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.

11.There is evidence that X plays a crucial role in regulating …

12.X is a common condition which has considerable impact on …

13.In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for …

14.Evidence suggests that X is among the most important factors for …

15.X is important for a wide range of scientific and industrial processes.

16.Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and …

17.There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance of …

18.X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.

19.In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in …

20.Xs are one of the most widely used groups of Y and have been extensively used for ….

02.表述研究主题对于学科的重要性

1.A key aspect of X is …

2.X is of interest because …

3.X is a classic problem in …

4.A primary concern of X is …

5.X is a dominant feature of …

6.X is an important aspect of …

7.X is a fundamental property of …

8.The concepts of X and Y are central to …

9.X is at the heart of our understanding of …

10.Investigating X is a continuing concern within …

11.X is a major area of interest within the field of …

12.X has been studied by many researchers using …

13.X has been an object of research since the 1960s.

14.X has been the subject of many classic studies in …

15.X has been instrumental in our understanding of …

16.The theory of X provides a useful account of how …

17.Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of …

18.X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.

19.The issue of X has received considerable critical attention.

20.X has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields.

03.研究主题:时间上的重要性

1.Recently, there has been renewed interest in …

2.Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that …

3.One of the most important events of the 1970s was …

4.In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in …

5.Recent developments in X have heightened the need for …

6.The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards …

7.Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in …

8.Over the past century, there has been a dramatic increase in …

9.Recent trends in X have led to a proliferation of studies that …

10.X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.

11.The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many …

12.Since it was reported in 2005, X has been attracting a lot of interest.

13.Recently, a considerable literature has grown up around the theme of …

14.Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in …

15.The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of …

16.The changes experienced by X over the past decade remain unprecedented.

17.In light of recent events in X, it is becoming extremely difficult to ignore the existence of …

04.研究主题:亟待解决的问题

1.X is a major problem in …

2.Of particular concern is …

3.One of the main obstacles …

4.One of the greatest challenges …

5.A key issue is the safe disposal of …

6.The main disadvantage of X is that …

7.X is associated with increased risk of …

8.X impacts negatively upon a range of …

9.X is a common disorder characterised by …

10.It is now well established that X can impair …

11.X has led to the decline in the population of …

12.X is a growing public health concern worldwide.

13.The main challenge faced by many researchers is the …

14.X is one of the most frequently stated problems with …

15Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.

16.X is a major environmental problem, and the main cause of …

17.Xs are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in …

18.X is the leading cause of death in western-industrialised countries.

19.Exposure to X has been shown to be related to adverse effects in …

20.There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged …

21.There is an urgent need to address the safety problems caused by …

However,

1.X may cause …

2.X is limited by …

3.X suffers from …

4.X is too expensive to be used for …

5.X has accentuated the problem of …

6.the performance of X is limited by …

7.X could be a contributing factor to …

8.the synthesis of X remains a major challenge.

9.X can be extremely harmful to human beings.

10.research has consistently shown that X lacks …

11.a major problem with this kind of application is …

12.the determination of X is technically challenging.

13.current methods of X have proven to be unreliable.

14.these rapid changes are having a serious effect on …

15.X can be adversely affected under certain conditions.

16.observations have indicated a serious decline in the population of...

05.以往研究已证实....

1.Recent evidence suggests that …

2.Extensive research has shown that …

3.Studies of X show the importance of …

4.It has previously been observed that …

5.Several attempts have been made to …

6.Previous research has established that …

7.Data from several studies suggest that …

8.Recent work by historians has established that …

9.Previous research comparing X and Y has found …

10.The existing body of research on X suggests that …

11.There is a growing body of literature that recognises …

12.Several theories on the origin of X have been proposed.

13.Existing research recognises the critical role played by …

14.It is now well established from a variety of studies, that …

15.Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.

16.Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that …

17.Factors found to be influencing X have been explored in several studies.

18.A number of cross-sectional studies suggest an association between X and Y…

19.Studies over the past two decades have provided important information on …

20.A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …

06.领域内的争论、分歧、知识缺陷

1.A much debated question is whether …

2.One major issue in early X research concerned …

3.To date there has been little agreement on what …

4.The issue has grown in importance in light of recent …

5.One of the most significant current discussions in X is …

6.In the literature on X, the relative importance of Y is debated.

7.One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in …

8.Questions have been raised about the use of animal subjects in …

9.In many Xs, a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning …

10.Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of …

11.This concept has recently been challenged by X studies demonstrating …

12.The debate about X has gained fresh prominence with many arguing that …

13.Scholars have long debated the impact of X on the creation and diffusion of …

14.More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about …

15.One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many years concerns …

16.The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.

17.The issue of X has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of …

18.The causes of X have been the subject of intense debate within the scientific community.

19.In the literature on X, the relative importance of Y has been subject to considerable discussion.

07.以往研究的不足之处

1.Previous studies of X have not dealt with …

2.Researchers have not treated X in much detail.

3.Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they …

4.Most studies in the field of X have only focused on …

5.Such approaches, however, have failed to address …

6.Previous published studies are limited to local surveys.

7.Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether …

8.The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.

9.Previously published studies on the effect of X are not consistent.

10.Smith’s analysis does not take account of …, nor does she examine …

11.The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.

12.However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature …

13.The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.

14.Research on the subject has been mostly restricted to limited comparisons of …

15.However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic research into …

16.Short-term studies such as these do not necessarily show subtle changes over time …

17.Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study exists which …

18.However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if …

19.The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about …

20.Most studies in X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.

08.该课题缺少相关研究

1.There is little published data on …

2.No previous study has investigated X.

3.The use of X has not been investigated.

4.There has been no detailed investigation of …

5.There has been little quantitative analysis of …

6.Data about the efficacy and safety of X are limited.

7.Up to now, far too little attention has been paid to …

8.A search of the literature revealed few studies which …

9.The impact of X on Y is understudied, particularly for …

10.Few studies have investigated X in any systematic way …

11.In addition, no research has been found that surveyed …

12.So far, however, there has been little discussion about …

13.So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of X.

14.Surprisingly, the effects of X have not been closely examined.

15.In contrast to X, there is much less information about effects of …

16.A systematic understanding of how X contributes to Y is still lacking.

17.Despite the importance of X, there remains a paucity of evidence on …

18.There have been no controlled studies which compare differences in …

19.To date, the problem has received scant attention in the research literature

20.To date, there are few studies that have investigated the association between …

While / Whilst / Although, some research has been carried out on X.

1.no single study exists which …

2.no studies have been found which …

3.no controlled studies have been reported.

4.only two studies have attempted to investigate …

5.there have been few empirical investigations into …

6.there is still very little scientific understanding of …

7.the mechanism by which … has not been established.

09.知识缺口

1.It is still not known whether …

2.… much less is known about X.

3.The nature of X remains unclear.

4.Currently, there are no data on …

5.What is less clear is the nature of …

6.Very little is currently known about X in …

7.Research to date has not yet determined …

8.What is not yet clear is the impact of X on …

9.There is still uncertainty, however, whether …

10.The response of X to Y is not fully understood.

11.Causal factors leading to X remain speculative.

12.The neurobiological basis of X is poorly understood.

13.Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors …

14.To date, only a limited number of Xs have been identified.

15.The mechanisms that underpin X are not fully understood.

16.Much uncertainty still exists about the relationship between …

17.This indicates a need to understand the various perceptions of X that exist among …

18.It is now well established that … However, the influence of X on Y has remained unclear.

However,

1.very little is known about X in…

2.few studies have investigated …

3.the nature of X remains unclear.

4.much less is known about how …

5.the use of X has not been investigated.

6.far too little attention has been paid to …

7.the behaviour of X has not yet been investigated.

8.the evidence for this relationship is inconclusive …

9.much uncertainty still exists about the relation between …

10.there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in…

10.陈述文章的目的、焦点、争论

1.In this paper, I argue that …

2.This paper attempts to show that …

3.The central thesis of this paper is that …

4.In the pages that follow, it will be argued that …

5.In this essay, I attempt to defend the view that …

6.The aim of this essay is to explore the relationship between …

7.The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the …

This paper

1.argues that …

2.gives an account of …

3.discusses the case of …

4.analyses the impact of …

5.attempts to show that …

6.contests the claim that …

7.provides an overview of …

8.reviews the evidence for …

9.reports on a study which …

10.traces the development of …

11.explores the ways in which …

12.assesses the significance of …

13.highlights the importance of …

14.considers the implications of …

15.critically examines the view that …

16.proposes a new methodology for …

17.examines the relationship between …

18.compares the different ways in which …

19.investigates the factors that determine …

20.describes the design and implementation of …

11.陈述研究的目标

1.The specific objective of this study was to …

2.An objective of this study was to investigate …

3.This thesis will examine the way in which the …

4.This study set out to investigate the usefulness of …

5.This dissertation seeks to explain the development of …

6.This case study seeks to examine the changing nature of …

7.The objectives of this research are to determine whether …

8.This prospective study was designed to investigate the use of …

9.This research examines the emerging role of X in the context of …

10.This study systematically reviews the data for…, aiming to provide …

11.Drawing upon two strands of research into X, this study attempts to …

12.This thesis intends to determine the extent to which … and whether …

13.This dissertation aims to unravel some of the mysteries surrounding …

14.This study therefore set out to assess the effect of X …, and the effect of …

15.The main aim of this study is to investigate the differences between X and Y.

16.Part of the aim of this project is to develop software that is compatible with …

17.There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate … 2. To ascertain …

18.This study seeks to obtain data which will help to address these research gaps.

19.One purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which these factors were …

20.The purpose of this investigation is to explore the relationship between X and Y.

12.实验设计和实验方法

1.Data for this study were collected using …

2.Five works will be examined, all of which …

3.This investigation takes the form of a case study of the …

4.This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.

5.This study uses a qualitative case study approach to investigate …

6.The research data in this thesis is drawn from four main sources: …

7.The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of …

8.This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of …

9.By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the …

10.Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide …

11.Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.

12.A holistic approach is utilised, integrating X, Y and Z material to establish …

13.The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via …

14.The methodological approach taken in this study is a mixed methodology based on …

15.A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in the data analysis.

13.本研究的意义所在

1.This is the first study to …

2.This study provides new insights into …

3.This work will generate fresh insight into …

4.The study offers some important insights into …

5.Understanding the link between X and Y will help …

6.This is the first study to undertake a longitudinal analysis of …

7.The present research explores, for the first time, the effects of …

8.The importance and originality of this study are that it explores …

9.The findings should make an important contribution to the field of ….

10.Characterisation of X is important for our increased understanding of …

11.It is hoped that this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of …

12.This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring …

13.This project provided an important opportunity to advance the understanding of …

14.Therefore, this study makes a major contribution to research on X by demonstrating …

15.There are several important areas where this study makes an original contribution to …

16.The experimental work presented here provides one of the first investigations into how …

14.本研究的不足之处

1.The thesis does not engage with …

2.It is not the task of this paper to examine …

3.This study is unable to encompass the entire …

4.Establishing X is beyond the scope of this study.

5.It is beyond the scope of this study to examine the …

6.A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study.

7.The reader should bear in mind that the study is based on …

8.Another potential problem is that the scope of my thesis may be too broad.

9.Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of…

15.表述文章结构

1.The first section of this paper will examine…

2.This paper begins by … It will then go on to …

3.My thesis is composed of four themed chapters.

4.The essay has been organised in the following way.

5.The remaining part of the paper proceeds as follows: …

6.The main issues addressed in this paper are: a), b) and c).

7.This paper first gives a brief overview of the recent history of X.

8.This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with …

9.The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study.

10.The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters, including …

11.Chapter Four analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during …

12.Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how …

13.The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that …

16.解释关键术语

1.Throughout this paper, the term ‘X’ will refer to …

2.The term ‘X’ will be used in this thesis to refer to …

3.Historically, the term ‘X’ has been used to describe …

4.It is necessary here to clarify exactly what is meant by …

5.The phrase ‘X’ will be used in this study to describe the …

6.According to Smith (2002), X can be defined as follows: ‘ … ’

7.In this article, the abbreviation XYZ will be used to refer to …

8.Throughout this dissertation, the term ‘X’ will be used to refer to …

9.The term ‘X’ is a relatively new name for …, commonly referred to as …

10.In this essay, the term ‘X’ will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all …

11.In this dissertation, the terms ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are used interchangeably to mean …

12.While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as …

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