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Essay怎么写出起承转合?

发布时间:2020-04-29 15:20:02 阅读:475 作者:致远教育 字数:1677 字 预计阅读时间:5分钟
导读:同中文写作一样,英文Essay写作也讲究起承转合,非如此不能达意。那么Essay如何写出起承转合呢?熟练掌握一些用来起承转合的词语,结合上下文使用,语言才会有更加意义。下文致远教育小编就为大家分享五种实现Essay写作起承转合的方法。

同中文写作一样,英文Essay写作也讲究起承转合,非如此不能达意。那么Essay如何写出起承转合呢?熟练掌握一些用来起承转合的词语,结合上下文使用,语言才会有更加意义。下文致远教育小编就为大家分享五种实现Essay写作起承转合的方法。

Essay怎么写出起承转合?

Essay写作中良好的起承转合是通过以下五种主要方法实现的,分别是:

1.重复的语句/想法(repeated words/ideas)

2.参考词(reference words)

3.过渡信号(transition signals)

4.替代词(substitution)

5.省略词(ellipsis)

下面我们分别来看这五种起承转合的方法:

第一种:重复的语句/想法(repeated words/ideas)

实现衔接的第一种方法是重复你想要说的主题,或者使用不同的单词(同义词)重复文章的主要思想。

Example:

Cohesion is an important feature of academic writing. It can help ensure that your writing coheres or 'sticks together', which will make it easier for the reader to follow the main ideas in your essay or report. You can achieve good cohesion by paying attention to five important features. The first of these is repeated words. The second key feature is reference words. The third one is transition signals. The fourth is substitution. The final important aspect is ellipsis.

在本例中,衔接(Cohesion)这个词被多次使用,包括用作动词(Coheres)。在学术写作中,同学们应该尽量避免过多的重复,因此更应该使用不同的词形或同义词。写作(Writing)这个词也被多次使用,包括散文或报告(Essay or Report),这都是写作的同义词。重要特征(Important features)这个词也被重复,例子中使用了同义词:关键特征,重要方面(Key feature, Important aspect)。

第二种:参考词(reference words)

参考词是指文本中其他地方提到的东西的词,通常在前面的句子中。最常见的类型是代词,如“it”、“this”或“these”。再研究一下前面的例子。

Example:

Cohesion is an important feature of academic writing. It can help ensure that your writing coheres or 'sticks together', which will make it easier for the reader to follow the main ideas in your essay or report. You can achieve good cohesion by paying attention to five important features. The first of these is repeated words. The second key feature is reference words. The third one is transition signals. The fourth is substitution. The final important aspect is ellipsis.

在上面的例子中,单词it,which和这些都是参考词。前两个词,it和which,都指前一句中使用的“衔接” (Cohesion)。最后一个these,这些,指的是“重要特征”,同样在它前面的句子中使用。

Essay怎么写出起承转合?

第三种:过渡信号(transition signals)

过渡信号,又称衔接手段或连接词,是表示思想之间关系的词或短语。过渡信号有许多不同的类型,其中最常见的类型示例如下:

for example - used to give examples

用于举例

in contrast - used to show a contrasting or opposite idea

用来表示对比或相反的想法

first - used to show the first item in a list

用于显示列表中的第一项

as a result - used to show a result or effect

用于显示结果或效果

再研究一下前面的例子。这一次,转换信号以粗体显示。这里,转换信号简单地给出了一个序列,与五个重要特征相关:第一(First)、第二(Second)、第三(Third)、第四(Fourth)和最后(Final)。

Example:

Cohesion is an important feature of academic writing. It can help ensure that your writing coheres or 'sticks together', which will make it easier for the reader to follow the main ideas in your essay or report. You can achieve good cohesion by paying attention to five important features. The first of these is repeated words. The second key feature is reference words. The third one is transition signals. The fourth is substitution. The final important aspect is ellipsis.

第四种:替代词(substitution)

替换是指使用一个或多个单词替换文本中先前使用的一个或多个单词。从语法上讲,它与指称词相似,主要区别在于替代词通常仅限于被替代词后面的从句,而指称词可以指的是文本中很久以前的某个词。最常用的代词是one,so和do,have,be等助动词。

例如:“Drinking alcohol before driving is illegal in many countries, since doing so can seriously impair one's ability to drive safely.”

“在许多国家,开车前饮酒是违法的,因为这样做会严重损害一个人的安全驾驶能力”

在这句话中,短语 'doing so' (这样做)代替了出现在句子开头的短语 'drinking alcohol before driving' (开车前喝酒)。

回顾之前的例子,里面只有一个替换的例子:单词one,它替换短语“important features”(重要特征)。

Example:

Cohesion is an important feature of academic writing. It can help ensure that your writing coheres or 'sticks together', which will make it easier for the reader to follow the main ideas in your essay or report. You can achieve good cohesion by paying attention to five important features. The first of these is repeated words. The second key feature is reference words. The third one is transition signals. The fourth is substitution. The final important aspect is ellipsis.

第五种:省略词(ellipsis)

省略意味着省略一个或多个单词,因为上下文中的意思已经足够清楚,所以即使是省略了这个词,也不会导致文章意思改变。

Example:

Cohesion is an important feature of academic writing. It can help ensure that your writing coheres or 'sticks together', which will make it easier for the reader to follow the main ideas in your essay or report. You can achieve good cohesion by paying attention to five important features. The first of these is repeated words. The second key feature is reference words. The third one is transition signals. The fourth is substitution. The final important aspect is ellipsis.

之前的例文中有一个省略的例子:“the fourth(第四个是)”,意思是“第四个[重要特征]是”,所以“important features(重要特征)”这个词被省略了。

除此之外,我们还为大家准备了一些其他类型的常用衔接词语/短语,以备写essay时的不时之需。

Additive words附加词 Also, and, as well as, at the same time as, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, too, not only... but also.
 Amplification words放大词 As, for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, such as, that is, to illustrate.
Repetitive words重复用词 Again, in other words, that is, to repeat.
Contrast words对比词 But, conversely, despite, even though, however, in contrast, notwithstanding, on the one hand / on the other hand, still, although, though, whereas, yet, nevertheless, on the contrary, in spite of this.
 Cause and effect words因果词 Accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, since, as, so, then, therefore, thus.
Qualifying words限定词 Although, if, even, therefore, unless.
Example例子 For example, for instance.
For example, for instance. Above all, more/most importantly.
Reason words推理词 For this reason, owing to this, therefore.
Order words顺序词 Afterwards, at the same time, before, firstly/secondly, formerly, lastly, finally, later, meanwhile, next, now, presently, today/yesterday/last week/next year, subsequently, then, until, ultimately, while, historically, in the end, eventually.
Explanation解释 In other words, that is to say.
 Attitude态度 Naturally, of course, certainly, strangely enough, surprisingly, fortunately, unfortunately, admittedly, undoubtedly.
Summary摘要/总结 Finally, in conclusion, in short, to summarise.

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