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英文Summary怎么写-Summary范文分享

发布时间:2020-04-17 15:23:03 阅读:901 作者:致远教育 字数:2470 字 预计阅读时间:8分钟
导读:Summary是一种对原始文献(或文章)的基本内容进行浓缩的语义连贯的短文,它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不加主观评论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容。但是很多留学生不知道怎么写summary以及怎么写好summary,本文致远教育小编为大家奉上写作方法。

Summary是一种对原始文献(或文章)的基本内容进行浓缩的语义连贯的短文,它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不加主观评论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容。但是很多留学生不知道summary怎么写以及怎么写好summary,本文致远教育小编为大家奉上写作方法。

Summary怎么写

Summary写作(summary writing)是一种控制性的作文形式,它能使学生通过阅读原文,吸收原文的文章结构与语言方面的长处,写出内容一致、结构近似、语言简洁的短文.另外,对培养学生善于抓住文章重点的能力也有很大帮助,有利于他们在实际写作中避免面面俱到,事无巨细,一一罗列的不良倾向.这种写作既要准确理解原文,又要能综合概括;既能培养欣赏能力,又能训练书面表达能力.

下面谈谈英文summary怎么写.

1)细读原文.首先要仔细阅读全篇作品,然后对作品进行整体分析,掌握原文总的意思和结构,明确全文的主题(the maintheme)和各段的段落大意(the main idea).

2)弄清要求.搞清楚是写全文概要,还是写某一部分的概要,或者就某些问题写出要点.3)列出原文要点.分析原文的内容和结构,将内容分项扼要表述并注意在结构上的顺序.在此基础上选出与文章主题密切相关的部分.

4)草拟写作提纲并写出初稿.将挑选出的要点作为框架草拟详细的提纲,以所列的提纲为依据写出summary的初稿.在写作时要特别注意下面几点:

a.summary应包括原文中的主要事实(main facts);略去不必要的细节(unnecessary details).

b.安排好篇幅的比例.summary应同原文保持协调,即用较多的文字写重要内容,用较少的文字写次要内容.

c.注意段落的连贯和句子的衔接.要用适当的转折词语贯通全文,切忌只简单地写出一些互不相干的句子.

d.尽可能用自己的话来写,但不排斥用原文的某些词句.

e.计算词数,看是否符合规定的词数要求. 

如何写一篇文章的summary?

如何写一篇文章的summary?

Summary是对一篇文章的主题思想的简单陈述.它用最简洁的语言概括了原文的主题.写summary主要包括三个步骤:(1)阅读;

(2)写作;

(3)修改成文;

第一步:阅读

A.认真阅读给定的原文材料.如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍.阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻. 

B.给summary起一个标题.用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短句子作为标题.也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题.主题句往往出现在文章的开头或结尾.一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想. 

C.现在,就该决定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了.对重要部分的主要观点进行概括. 

D.简要地记下主要观点——主题、标题、细节等你认为对概括summary重要的东西. 

第二步:动手写作 

A. summary应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长.因此首先数一下原文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字.summary的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千万不能超过这个数字. 

B. summary应全部用自己的话完成.不要引用原文的句子. 

C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序.这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实. 

D. summary必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需翻阅原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意. 

E. 写summary时可以采用下列几种小技巧: 

1) 删除细节.只保留主要观点. 

2) 选择一至两个例子.原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子. 

3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子.如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可. 

4) 避免重复.在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明.但是这在summary中是不能使用的.应该删除那些突出强调的重述句. 

5) 压缩长的句子.如下列两例: 

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.” 

可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.” 

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 

可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.” 

6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句.请看下面的例子: 

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.” 

可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.” 

7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如: 

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.” 

可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.” 

8) 使用最短的连接词.比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的连接词.通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果. 

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在summary中转换成第三人称,从而把大段的对白简化,比如: 

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful… like eating cardboard or sand… just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.” 

可以用第三人称概括为: 

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

第三步:修改成文 

草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改.首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要的观点都概括了,summary中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致.其次,如果summary中出现了不必要的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们.第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符号的错误.最后,保持语言简单明了. 

经过上述步骤和方法,一篇summary就可以完成了,下面是一篇summary范文,供大家参考:

Summary范文分享

Winterer, Caroline. The Mirror of Antiquity: American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750-1900. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.

In this follow-up to her earlier study, Winterer focuses on the place of classicism in the lives of American women.  The unity or contiguity of this narrative depends, I think, on familiarity with the earlier work.  Without having read Winterer’s first book, I might have found this volume arbitrary and insular.

Winterer begins by describing the place of classicism in the lives of well-educated (for their time) upper-class women of the pre-Revolutionary era.  Classical motifs and a smattering of classical knowledge — not of original languages but of history and literature — were a way to ornament one’s conversation or one’s home, a way to participate at a superficial level in a social discourse with men.

During the Revolutionary era, women appealed to the ideal of the Roman matron to characterize themselves as guardians of republican virtue who played a key role in shaping the character of America’s youth — specifically, America’s sons — and thus the future of the country.

In her chapter on the early Republic, Winterer traces the way women appropriated or understood three key motifs or myths:  the women of Sparta, Roman charity/the Grecian daughter, and the contrast between Minerva and Venus.  I had never heard of Roman charity; now I am scarred for life.  However, the myth, and its ready adoption by women (or by men talking about women?) says a lot about what women were expected to do and to be:  completely self-abnegating in the service of patriarchy.

Winterer’s chapter on Grecian luxury discusses the importation of “classical,” and specifically Grecian/”oriental” motifs into fashion and decorating.  Grecian dresses (white, flowing fabric, no corset, empire waist) were meant to make women look columnar; klismos chairs and sofas were meant to accentuate women’s life of leisure and repose.  The whole section on the sofa as a symbol of status and decadence is amazing, simply for historicizing what is surely by now a ubiquitous and completely unremarkable object.

At the same time that classical knowledge was being criticized as being irrelevant and elite, classicism was going mainstream for women (and the democracy in general) with the rise of museums and cultural venues that put access to the classical past within the reach of more people.  In “female academies,” women’s seminaries, and colleges, more and more women began to learn classical languages.  Winterer does not say if this increased access of women to the classics “caused” their decline in prestige or was a consequence of it.*  But she does point out repeatedly throughout the book the irony that women gained full participation in the tradition of classical learning when classical learning was no longer central to American public and political life. In her chapter on the Greek slave, Winterer discusses how classicism informed polemics about the place of women in society, and the nobility (or lack thereof) of female slaves seeking freedom.  In the last chapter, on Antigone, Winterer talks about how the play offered a vehicle to portray female heroism, but a heroism that was linked to gender essentialism in the 19th century.

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