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Essay写作主体结构推荐:PEEL写作逻辑法

发布时间:2022-05-18 13:37:52 阅读:165 作者:博远教育 字数:1830 字 预计阅读时间:4分钟
导读:一般一篇Essay包含3个部分,依次为开头段Introduction,主体段Mainbody,以及结论conclusion。其中主体段一般为2-3段。全文整体结构,就类似一个汉堡包。今天我们主要讨论,主体段应该如何构思?关于主题段如何展开,雅思写作有一个常用的结构方法:PE...

一般一篇Essay包含3个部分,依次为开头段Introduction, 主体段Main body, 以及结论conclusion。其中主体段一般为2-3段。全文整体结构,就类似一个汉堡包。

Essay写作

今天我们主要讨论,主体段应该如何构思?关于主题段如何展开,雅思写作有一个常用的结构方法:PEEL写作逻辑法。

PEEL写作逻辑法由P、E、E、L四个单词的首字母组成。PEEL这个词,本意为"剥开",借助PEEL写作法,我们能剥开学术写作的外壳,理解学术写作的结构框架。

PEEL写作逻辑解结构图

Point

是指观点 (Point),是一个段落的主旨句。

Your first sentence must state your point. It introduces the topic you're about to discuss and tells the reader what the paragraph is going to be about. This is sometimes called a topic sentence.

Evidence/Examples

第一个 E 是指举例 (Example) 或者证据 (Evidence)– 用例子来支撑您的观点

Support your point with evidence and examples. In the next one or two sentences, give evidence to expand upon and support the point you made. Evidence can include facts, statistics, research findings, quotes from a credible authority or a primary text.

Explain

第二个 E 是指解释 (Explain)– 为什么这个证据能够支持您的观点

This is where you show your understanding by explaining in more detail how and why your evidence supports your point. Your explanation should interpret the evidence for the reader.

Link

L 是指衔接 (Link)– 连接到你的主论点,总结本段的主要观点,或者过渡到下一个中心思想或段落

The final part of the PEEL sentence is the statement that links it to your broader argument or a closing statement that summarizes the argument you've just made, or link your writing to the next paragraph.

PEEL写作法是一个实用且高效的结构写作方法。一方面,该方法能帮助你写出条理清晰、逻辑严密的文章。另一方面,这样的结构也让读者更容易理解你的观点,跟上你的思路。这一点很重要,因为考官在评分时,每张试卷也就看几眼,让他能够快速抓住你的主要观点,跟上你的思路,才能给你更高的分数。

虽然这个方法听起来很简单,但实际操作后,会发现并不容易掌握。

关于PEEL结构的几个常见问题

1. 例子或证据从哪来?该如何举例子?

例子主要来源于我们做过的case study。所以平时案例积累非常重要。我们之前整理过很多案例,大家可以翻看我以前的文章。

在举例子方面,很多学生常犯的错误,就是举例过于冗长且不切题。如果例子不能有效的支持你的观点,就是无效例证,是没有分数的。有学生抱怨说,自己举了例子,但为何15分的Essay总是超不过7分,这就是原因。

2. PEEL结构中Example和Evidence的顺序是固定的吗?

有些人认为这两个E的位置应该是固定的,但其实没有必要这么死板。谁先谁后没关系,逻辑上流畅就可以。大家可以对比一下这两个例文:

Example 1:

Why does volcanic activity occur in the Pacific Ring of Fire?

(Point) Volcanic activity occurs around the Pacific Ring of Fire because many destructive plate boundaries are located here.

(Evidence) One example is the destructive boundary between the continental South American plate and the oceanic Pacific plate which has formed the Andes Mountains

(Explain) The denser oceanic plate is subducted underneath the continental plate and melts as it falls into the hot mantle. Magma then rises up through the continental plate and is erupted through volcanoes at the surface.

(Link) The destructive boundaries all around the Pacific Ring of Fire are the reason for high volcanic activity.

Example 2:

(Point) "Whilst there are numerous reasons to study history, arguably the most pertinent is that history helps us to understand people and societies.

(Explain) This is because history provides us with a vast repository of knowledge about how people and societies behave.

(Example) For example, humanity can project economic forecast through the study of past trends.

(Explain) However imperfectly, history serves as a laboratory and the data it provides allows people to understand how humans and societies evolve.

(Link) This shows that people study history to understand how and why they manage their life the way they do."

仔细观察第二个例文,你会发现它不是简单的PEEL结构。很明显是一个加长版的PEEL,P和L之间可以无限嵌套E。第一个E是explain, 是对point做了解释。后面接了一个Evidence + Explain。在很多稍微复杂点的段落中,这样的结构很常见。

有时候,一个结果可能有很多个原因。这也就意味着,一个point后面需要分类讨论好几个解释。整段的结构就会比较复杂,可能会构成类似这样的结构:

Point

Explain 1, Evidence 1

Explain 2, Evidence 2

Link.

举个例子

(Point) Drainage basin size cansignificantly influence the flood risk in a drainage basin. 

(Explain 1) On one hand, if a basin is small, rainfall will reach and fill the river quicker, which results in a smaller lag time.  

(Evidence 1) For example, the Boscastle (UK) floods of 2004 drained an area of less than 15 km2. This meant that the peak of the floods occurred soon after the peak of the storm. In contrast, the Mississippi River is over 3700 km long, it takes much longer for the lower part of the river to respond to an even that might occur in the upper part of the river. 

(Explain 2) On the other hand, large basin with more tributaries can catch more water, resulting in high peak discharge. Therefore, large basin is more likely to have severe floods than small basin. 

(Evidence 2) For example, Yangtze River is the longest riverin Asia (6300 km). Its drainage basin comprises one-fifth of the land area of China and is home to nearly 500 million of the country's population. Yangtze River has flooded many times in history and claimed thousands of people. In contrast, Qinhuai River, as a tributary of Yangtze River, has much small catchment area, it flows across Nanjing city. Although the water level can rise quickly in rain season, floods never happen in this river in recent decades. 

(Link) Altogether, small basin can respond more quickly to rainfall while large basin tends to have high peak discharge. 

3. 举例子或者做解释有哪些常用句型?

有一些常用的解释句的句型可以采用:

Sentence starters you might use to add analysis statements include:

• This evidence shows that . . .

• Therefore . . .

• These examples demonstrate . . .

• Because …., then.

• Clearly, this suggests that . . .

• This evidence is an example of . . .

• This reveals that . . .

•If this happened, then.....

•This is significant because.....

举例的常用句式:

For example,

For instance,

4. 要用好这个方法,还有哪些需要注意?

写作前需要构思文章的结构,要先打草稿,规划文章的结构。有的学生经常会漏掉举例或Link,根本原因就是没打草稿。

有时间一定要检查。检查是否存在语法和拼写错误,检查PEEL的4个部分是否齐全。

5. 这个方法有什么缺点呢?

缺点也是有的。这个方法最常用于雅思写作。雅思写作和A-level考试对学生的能力要求存在差异。

A-level Geography的评价目标有4个,分别为AO1: knowledge, AO2: understanding and application, AO3: Skills, AO4: Evaluation. As考试注重对前3个能力的考察,AO4占比仅为12%。但A2考试更注重对学生批判性思维的考察,AO4占比提高到40%。

以上就是关于PEEL写作逻辑法介绍,觉得有用的同学们可以根据自己的情况使用。如果在国外留学的同学们遇到不会写Essay或者不想写的话,欢迎大家选择博远教育为您提供Essay代写服务,我们旗下超过500位硕博精英写手熟知各类Essay写作格式确保为大家写出高质量原创Essay,价格有诚意、分数有保障、服务有质量,欢迎咨询。

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