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summary范文及常用句型汇总

发布时间:2020-03-30 10:33:02 阅读:949 作者:致远教育 字数:1546字 预计阅读时间:5分钟
导读:前面的文章《Summary怎么写?》我们给大家介绍了summary的写作方法,但是还是有很多小伙伴们不会写,为了帮助大家学会如何写summary,本文为大家分享三篇summary范文及常用句型,希望对大家有用。

前面的文章《Summary怎么写?》我们给大家介绍了summary的写作方法,但是还是有很多小伙伴们不会写,为了帮助大家学会如何写summary,本文为大家分享三篇summary范文及常用句型,希望对大家有用。

summary范文

summary范文1 Sample 1: 

Billy Jones (bjones@cs.washington.edu), CSE 403, Winter 2048 (Instructor: Smith)

Reading Summary #1

In "Rules about Copying and Sharing Java Code," author Josh Smith believes that code copied from others should be cited as such, otherwise it is plagiarism. Another important idea that Smith discusses is that most discussions of plagiarism are with respect to "works in written and spoken language", and hence he wants to discuss how to cite the work of others within computer programs. He supports this latter idea by specifying that "due credit" is given to others by specifying the original author, the source where the code was obtained, and any alterations that the current author is making to the original code. The author provides examples citations whose source is from a textbook, an instructor, the Internet, from multiple sources, and from code that is "common knowledge" in order to show how one can always clearly identify the author of each code unit in a variety of situations. Another important point made by Smith is that code should never be transferred between students electronically, because this would imply unsuitable sharing of work and plagiarism. Smith's target audience is computer science students, as it is likely that either they are unaware of plagiarism in general, or they are aware of plagiarism in other fields but have not considered how it applies specifically when writing code. This material relates to the current course material because it comes after the design process and during the implementation process, when the most code is being written and would be most available for potential copying. Smith's guidelines for copying and reusing code are accurate and useful; however, he forgets that sometimes a great deal can be learned by examining code written by others. It would have been nice if he had left some provision where it was okay to do this under the right circumstances.

summary范文2 Sample 2:

Winterer, Caroline. The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780-1910. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

This book looks at the history of classicism in America during the period — mostly the formal study of the classics, but also the wider cultural uses of classical languages and tropes.  

During the period in question Winterer traces a shift from a privileging of Rome to a preference for Greece, and from classical education as a prerequisite for a public or political career to classical education as a means of private self-improvement and a marker of elite status.  Classical studies became increasingly marginalized in the university, but classicists found a way to preserve the viability of their discipline as the beginning of a broader study of “civilizations” and as a cornerstone of “the humanities,” set over against modernist scientism.

In her introduction, Winterer lays out the book’s main “argument,” and then proceeds to describe the book’s narrative arc.  This puzzled me at first — that the book’s “argument” doesn’t consist of a central claim with supporting points, but an unfolding chronology.  How can story be an argument?  However, this seems to me to be an illustration of Mink’s distinction between the “detachable” conclusions of science and the “ingredient” conclusions of history:  “The significant conclusions, one might say, are ingredient in the argument itself, not merely in the sense that they are scattered through the text but in the sense that they are represented by the narrative order itself.  As ingredient conclusions they are exhibited rather than demonstrated” (Mink 39).

In the course of her narrative, Winterer exhibits the importance and then the relative obsolescence of the classics in American life.  They were central to formal education because the aim of the first American universities was to train learned ministers.  Further, the study of the classical languages themselves — grammar and pronunciation — was viewed as an important part of character formation, and a source of virtue.  The shift from “words to worlds,” from philology to literature, began in earnest during the Jacksonian era, when the usefulness of arcane languages was called into question.  As the university became a more open and inclusive institution — more middle and working-class students, more women, more blacks — classical studies became a marker of the intellectual elite.  Women gained access to the classical language in significant numbers just as classicism was waning as a way of thinking about society.

summary范文3 Sample 3:

Winterer, Caroline. The Mirror of Antiquity: American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750-1900. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.

In this follow-up to her earlier study, Winterer focuses on the place of classicism in the lives of American women.  The unity or contiguity of this narrative depends, I think, on familiarity with the earlier work.  Without having read Winterer’s first book, I might have found this volume arbitrary and insular.

Winterer begins by describing the place of classicism in the lives of well-educated (for their time) upper-class women of the pre-Revolutionary era.  Classical motifs and a smattering of classical knowledge — not of original languages but of history and literature — were a way to ornament one’s conversation or one’s home, a way to participate at a superficial level in a social discourse with men.

During the Revolutionary era, women appealed to the ideal of the Roman matron to characterize themselves as guardians of republican virtue who played a key role in shaping the character of America’s youth — specifically, America’s sons — and thus the future of the country.

In her chapter on the early Republic, Winterer traces the way women appropriated or understood three key motifs or myths:  the women of Sparta, Roman charity/the Grecian daughter, and the contrast between Minerva and Venus.  I had never heard of Roman charity; now I am scarred for life.  However, the myth, and its ready adoption by women (or by men talking about women?) says a lot about what women were expected to do and to be:  completely self-abnegating in the service of patriarchy.

Winterer’s chapter on Grecian luxury discusses the importation of “classical,” and specifically Grecian/”oriental” motifs into fashion and decorating.  Grecian dresses (white, flowing fabric, no corset, empire waist) were meant to make women look columnar; klismos chairs and sofas were meant to accentuate women’s life of leisure and repose.  The whole section on the sofa as a symbol of status and decadence is amazing, simply for historicizing what is surely by now a ubiquitous and completely unremarkable object.

At the same time that classical knowledge was being criticized as being irrelevant and elite, classicism was going mainstream for women (and the democracy in general) with the rise of museums and cultural venues that put access to the classical past within the reach of more people.  In “female academies,” women’s seminaries, and colleges, more and more women began to learn classical languages.  Winterer does not say if this increased access of women to the classics “caused” their decline in prestige or was a consequence of it.*  But she does point out repeatedly throughout the book the irony that women gained full participation in the tradition of classical learning when classical learning was no longer central to American public and political life. In her chapter on the Greek slave, Winterer discusses how classicism informed polemics about the place of women in society, and the nobility (or lack thereof) of female slaves seeking freedom.  In the last chapter, on Antigone, Winterer talks about how the play offered a vehicle to portray female heroism, but a heroism that was linked to gender essentialism in the 19th century.

summary写作常用句型

上面就是三篇summary范文内容,供大家参考学习,下面为大家分享关于summary写作常用句型。

1)This paper deals with...

2)This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)...  

3)This eassy presents knowledge that...  

4)This thesis discusses...  

5)This thesis analyzes...  

6)This paper provides an overview of...  

7)This paper elaborates on ...  

8)This article gives an overview of...  

9)This article compares...and summarizes key findings.  

10)This paper includes discussions concerning...  

11)This paper presents up to date information on...  

12)This article covers the role of chemicals in...  

13)This paper addresses important topics including...  

14)This paper touches upon...  

15)This paper strongly emphasizes...  

16)This eassy represents the preceedings of ...  

17)This article not only describes...but also suggests...  

18)This paper considers...  

19)This paper provides a method of ...  

20)This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze..  

21)This paper offers the latest information regarding...

22)This paper is devoted to examining the role of...  

23)This article explores...  

24)This paper expresses views on...  

25)This paper reflects the state of the art in...  

26)This paper explains the procedures for...  

27)This paper develops the theory of...

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2020-04-22 15:22匿名用户
句型收下了,很实用

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