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英国Report怎么写?技巧攻略奉上

发布时间:2020-03-30 09:49:06 阅读:440 作者:致远教育 字数:2751字 预计阅读时间:9分钟
导读:写学术文章AcademicWriting是英国大学的重要组成部分,一是考察你对本课程学习,二是很看重学生自主学习的程度和能力,三是你的学术能力,及杜绝剽窃和学术格式。Report是英国大学常见的作业之一,那么report怎么写?有什么写作技巧?下面致远教育为大家娓娓道来!

写学术文章Academic Writing是英国大学的重要组成部分,一是考察你对本课程学习,二是很看重学生自主学习的程度和能力,三是你的学术能力,及杜绝剽窃和学术格式。Report是英国大学常见的作业之一,那么report怎么写?有什么写作技巧?下面致远教育为大家娓娓道来!

英国Report怎么写?写作技巧奉上

 怎样写出一篇打动英国老师的Report呢,首先我们先看一下Report写作评分标准:

1.Whole TextTask achievement

2.Structure&Argument

Development of ideas/argument

Paragraph structure and coherence

3.Academic Conventions

Acknowledgement of sources

In-text citations

Reference list

4.Use of Sources

Understanding of sources

Selection of sources

5.Cohesion

Range&Accuracy

6.Grammar

Range&Accuracy

7.Lexis/Vocabulary

Lexical Range&accuracy

Discipline-related language

Use of language

老师改完你的draft以后会发给你一个表格,每一栏会把你得分的区间高光。

英国打分不像国内是满分制100分,而是百分数,分级情况40%及格,40-50%中等,50-60%良好,60-70%优秀,70%以上是excellent。关于这个评分,不同学校,不同专业要求,不同老师喜好,老师打的分可能要写差别,有些老师高些,有些老师严些,本科和研究生好像也是有点区别的。但是70%以上确实是很好的,用我一个老师说的话,一个年级的平均分大概在50-58%之间,出现75%甚至80%甚至90%以上的一定要有第2个老师打分确认。

根据这个表格和老师的comment来修改和完成Report,最终分数也会有一个这样的表格高光每一栏,如果对分数有疑问可以发邮件问老师,根据评分标准,每个评分标准得分综合为你的最后总分。

Report写作格式要求

·Double-Spacing:Your text should be double-spaced.有时候要求1.5倍行距,老师会说

·Font:Arial

·Font Size:Titles-14 point/Main Body Text-12 point(Use the same font size and font style throughout your assignment.)

·Page Numbers for Report:Each page should be numbered at the bottom on the right

·Reference List for Report:At the end of your Report put the sub-heading‘References’.List in alphabetical order all of the materials you have referred to in your Report

·Cover Page for Report:You should include a front cover page for your assignment.The Language Centre’s cover page is on the VLE in the assessment folder

Report写作选题和题纲

关于选题,因为老师会给一些题目范围,可以从中选择自己比较了解的写,不过在写的过程中碰到无法解决的问题,不妨换个题目重新开始,不用一条路走到黑。

确定题目以后,需要写个题纲理清思路,大致分配一下各部分的字数,下面是一个关于food securitysample.

Report outline

Introduction

-Context–why is this topic important?

-Definition of key terms:food security,developing countries,developed countries

-Overview of the Report structure

-Your position/stance/view

Main body 1

Factor 1 Not-for-profit regulatory systems

Definition

Developing countries-examples

Developed countries-examples

Similarities/differences

Factor 2(as factor 1)

Factor 3(as factor 1)

Factor 4(as factor 1)

Main body 2

Section 1:Developing countries–comparedifferent factors

Section 2:Developed countries–comparedifferent factors

这个plan比较简单,可以按自己的文章结构加东西变得更详细,写完plan就可以收集材料写draft了。用的最多的就是Google Scholar和学校图书馆网站,当然也可以在图书馆看纸质的书。

Report写作中的Referencing

Report写作中的Referencing

首先,严格的学术论文不能出现I think,in my opinion,my points,we,us,等等体现自己主观观点的词语和观点,因为我们作为学生毕竟不是一个领域的专家,还不能够在这种学生作业中出现自己观点,尤其作为主观点讨论。如果确实有自己的观点,就要拿捏分寸,放得位置(通常临结尾),说的分量,怎么说,个人建议,千万不要又说自己的观点,又很傻的用I think等明显不专业的词语。

除非论文的要求里有结合your own experience来谈。

再说简单的,也是中国学生初到英国最为不习惯而又要最为学会的——引用Referencing

Report写作常用引用格式

间接引用

·It is noted(Lucy,2000;Lily2001)that..括号内作者姓Family name,作品年代

·Lucy(2000)has said that··作者说,作者姓,紧接着作品年代

·如果是两个作者Lucy and Lily(2000)have argue that···

·如果是多个作者Lucy et al.(2000)suggested that··通常情况如果作者过世,用过去时动词,否则不用

·如果没有确切的作者,作者姓名用文章所在单位,比如BBC,比如某书的名字xxx(2000)defines··

·如果没有年代,则括号(no date)

特别特别强调和注意:区分直接引用!!

上述省略号内的内容是你用自己的话复述作者的观点,你可以总结,你可以用你的理解重新拆分句子结构重新组织语言表达作者的写的内容,这是间接引用。如果你是直接一次不差的引用,而是直接引用,及copy,则·Lucy(2000,p8)explains that‘···’.引用里面是你直接抄的内容,括号内要注明这段内容的在书籍里面的位置,即页数即可。

注意哦:写好的文章会传到论文检测系统,文章里超过20%内容直接copy,你的文章就被视为剽窃,老师都不会看你的文章,直接重写,或者说严重,直接0分处理了。另外就是再次强调,用了别人的观点,一定要说是谁的,什么时候的,不写清楚,也是种剽窃,而老师打分时,这部分通常和这语言分占到20%

Referencing的另一大头——Reference即引用文献清单(有些课程要求是参考文献Bibliography,两者差别,Reference清单内容全是文中所用内容的出处,而参考文献是包括你看过的所有资料,即便没有在文中使用过。到底用Reference还是Bibliography根据老师要求而定)

引用格式包括这个Reference的书写有不止一个版本,一个叫哈佛Reference格式。不同引用格式在作者名字,还有些标点,字体格式上有一定的出入。注意作者名字,字体,年代,文章名字,来自书的名字,报刊名字。

Report写作中的Critical thinking

Report写作中的Critical thinking

再说一下Critical thinking,这是说看待一个问题,应该从不同人,不同角度去看,事情并非总是非一即二的二元论。

The following questions may be usefully asked about any text you are reading:

Purpose and background

Why are you reading this text?What is your purpose?

What type of text is it:research report,Report,textbook,book review?

What do you know about the subject of the text?

What else has been written on the subject of the text?

What controversies exist in this area?How does this text fit in?

The author and the text

Who is the author?What do you know about the author?What authority does the author have?

Who is the intended audience?

What is the author's purpose?Why has the text been written?

What is the source of the text?Is it reputable?Who is the publisher?What reputation to they have?

What is the date of publication?Is it appropriate to the argument?

What is the writer's attitude towards the topic?

What conclusions are drawn?

Evidence used

Is there a clear distinction between fact and opinion?

Is evidence used to support arguments?How good is the evidence?Are all the points supported?

In an experimental study,was the sample size adequate and are the statistics reliable?

Are there any unsupported points?Are they well-known facts or generally accepted opinions?

How does the writer use other texts and other people's ideas?

Are the writer's conclusions reasonable in the light of the evidence presented?

How do the conclusions relate to other similar research?

Assumptions made

What assumptions has the writer made?Are they valid?

What beliefs or values does the writer hold?Are they explicit?

Look at the language that is used,e.g.active/passive verbs,nominalisations,pronouns,ergative verbs,articles,etc.

Look for emphatic words such as it is obvious,definitely and of course.

Look for hedges:possible,might,perhaps.

Look for emotional arguments,use of maximisers:completely,absolutely,entirely,or minimisers:only,just,hardly,simply,merely.

How else could the text have been written?

能想完这些问题,再也不用担心自己没有Critical thinking~~

在阅读相关领域的书籍文献后,有些疑问被解答,有些思路变清晰,有些点子被激发,有些观点被完善,有些想法被批判,总之,如果对自己喜欢课程感兴趣,对题目感兴趣,阅读这些相关领域的文献是很快乐过程。

再有,完成这类作业,也是一个全方位的锻炼吧,有目标,比如明确题目,明确评分要求,知道要写什么,用什么关键词去找文献,进而是要静得下心来阅读足够量的文献,通常3000字左右的文献,要完成较为出色,至少要15references以上吧,最少最少不能少过10个,剩下的就是你的introductionmain bodyconclusion各个部分字数分布,内容安排都需要考虑,写完后格式,语法,用词,调整也是不能少的,作为留学生,proof reading必不可少,所以这个过程也是你自己时间安排,个人动机驱动等等的考验。

最后大家注意一下学校对晚交论文的惩罚,实在因为生病要晚交要申请的哦~

Late Penalties

University rules on penalties for late submission of coursework require 5 full marks(on the 20-90 scale)to be deducted for every period of 24 hours or part there of(including weekends)that passes after the date of required submission.This means that work submitted within 24 hours of the deadline is deducted 5 marks;work submitted between 24 and 48 hours late is deducted 10 marks,and so on.

Extension Request

If extenuating circumstances prevent you from submitting coursework by the deadline you must apply for an extension.Deadline extensions for your assessments are normally only given inadvance and in cases of genuine medical or similarly serious reasons.

字数没达到或者超过太多也不行的~

Penalties for exceeding the required wordcount

If the length of the assignment exceeds the required word count by more than 10%,the mark awarded for the work affected will be reduced by 5 marks.The word count excludes bibliography and footnotes unless specific guidance isprovided otherwise.No penalty applies to work of insufficient length(the assessor will make a judgment on the marking scale of the extent to which short submissions addressed the task set).

重复的太多就视为抄袭,所以间接引用一定要记得用自己的话rephrase~

Declaration of Academic Integrity and Plagiarism

By signing the declaration of academic integrity,you confirm that the work being submitted is entirely your own.Presenting someone else’s work as your own is viewed by the University plagiarism and is taken very seriously.The penalties imposed can vary from receiving a mark of zero(on the 0-100 scale)or 20(on the 20–90 scale)for a piece of work to exclusion from the University.

以上说了这么多大家都知道怎么写Report才能打动老师了吗?对于没有学术写作基础的小伙伴们不知道如何写Report的话,可以找英国Report代写机构——致远教育为您代写,如果大家自己已经写好了可以交给我们帮您精修润色哦,双重审议修改模式,确保您的Report不会再有fragment错误;100%按时交稿,确保ddl之前为您完美解决;100%原创保证,每一份稿件都有我们的写作团队亲力亲为,并且赠送免费Turnitin原创检测报告,安全无忧,赶紧联系网站客服提交吧~

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