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Research Essay格式指南与范文模板

发布时间:2022-02-10 14:36:54 阅读:697 作者:博远教育 字数:2018 字 预计阅读时间:5分钟
导读:ResearchEssay是留学生学业上的必经之路,很多人可能会对于这样学术性比较强的文章感到无从着手。其实,写这类文章都是有技巧的,接下来博远教育会一步一步地分析如何写好一篇ResearchEssay。

Research Essay是留学生学业上的必经之路,很多人可能会对于这样学术性比较强的文章感到无从着手。其实,写这类文章都是有技巧的,接下来博远教育会一步一步地分析如何写好一篇research essay并为大家提供research essay范文模板。

Research Essay写作步骤

1.Research Essay写作步骤

第一步其实很简单但很重要。你要真正理解作业的内容以及教授对于这篇论文的要求,了解题目的真正意思才有助于你少走弯路,要确保是不跑题的,才能得到理想的分数。仔细阅读教授给你的材料,总结材料中的主要内容,如果你不是很确定,一定要问清楚。了解教授的分数评定标准也很重要。一定要确保自己在正确的道路上开始着手。

第二步,是选题,开始思考你所要写的内容。选择自己感兴趣的,愿意花时间去了解的主题。没有完美的主题,或者说,一定能拿高分的主题。根据自己情况,选择一些有争议性话题的主题,也可能会有很好的效果,比如gun control, abortion 或者 privacy rights等等,一些时新的,争议性话题也可以激发出许多不同的声音。当你确定主题主题符合作业要求之后,就要花些时间去找资料,这时候你不一定要很精通这个话题的所有知识点,但也要有所了解。把搜集资料当成一种学习新知识的挑战,其实论文的好坏某种程度上也是看你对论文的投入程度。

第三步,开始搜集资料,做研究。研究方式大家都会有所不同,没有特定的模式。主要就是大量地浏览,找到可靠可用的论文资源,尽可能地收集有用的信息。在阅读的时候,要学会找到自己最快速有效的方法寻找关键词和关键片段。一般的网络信息是肯定不能作为可靠数据采纳的,比如维基百科。还是要科学的文献论文之类,才有说服力。可以从维基百科入手,深入探究更科学的数据,把相关主题的观点都记笔记,再做整理筛选。如果有可能的话,和权威教授多多交流。

第四步,整理你的资料有助于清晰思路,把你所想要用到的书籍名称,论文等列成书单,然后在关键想引用的地方做上标记,整理的过程也是构思的过程。

第五步,经过以上的步骤基本上你对于所写的内容已经有所把握了。可以组织一下思绪,提出一个主旨句。这个观点简明扼要地让读者了解这篇文章在说什么,也帮助你把握中心思想。比如,看下图短句。

当然这只是文章的起点。如果光是这样的观点是没有说服力的,你后续还要更具体的修正观点。比如,看下图。不用害怕提出的观点是有争议的,有争议也是检验你观点是否合理的强势。

当你确定一个可辩论的、清晰的主旨之后,再去和老师沟通一下,看一下这个论点是否足够的强有力,对于你的论文成绩会有帮助。

第六步,就是写大纲。这部分是树立一个论文结构体系,让你在写作的过程中更加顺畅,不会因为信息的繁多产生混乱的语言和思维。下个部分里我们会详细讲解下论文的结构。

第七步在大纲确认之后,就可以开始写作了。

最后一步可以合并为一个概念,那就是修正。修正你需要补充或者删减的内容,修正你的语法,避免阅读上的不通畅。重新以客观的角度阅读你自己的文章,提出建议并进行修改,会更有质量的保证。

2.Research Essay结构指南

论文一开始肯定是title,可以用简短有趣吸引人的标题增加可读性,包括了你的信息,名字,日期等等。接下来是abstract概要,对文章的简短总结概要。概要之后就是introduction介绍,这里包含了主题内容的背景信息。再接下来是材料和方法materials/methods,解释任何与你研究有关系的,你所采用的材料和方法,之后我们会贴出范文给大家参考。解释完之后,就是result结论。讨论你的发现,但不要做绝对的结论。然后进行discussion,讨论你这个结论的意义。在最后完结之前,还有一个部分叫做limitations,可以适当的提出文案的局限性,提供一些后续需要研究的方向。最后就是acknowledgments以及reference,一些需要补充的注释和参考文案的目录。

3.Research Essay范文模板

我们在这里给大家展示一篇Research Essay短范例,仅做参考。

—START OF EXAMPLE —

[Page 1 ・ text aligned in the center and middle of the page)

"Behavioral Study of Obedience"

by [author], (University]

1961

[Page 2 - text starts at the top, left]

Abstract

There are few facts about the role of obedience when committing acts against one's personal conscience (1961). Most theories suggest that only very disturbed people are capable of administering pain to an ordinary citizen if they are ordered to do so. Our experiment tested people's obedienee to authority. The results showed that most obey all orders given by the authority-figure, despite their unwillingness. The conclusion is that, contrary to common belief, personal ethics mean little when pitted against authority.

[Page 3-X - text starts in the top, left corner, no extra spacing to align text]

Introduction

Current theories focus on personal characteristics to explain wrong-doing and how someone can intentionally harm others. In a survey, professionals such as doctors, psychologist and laymen predicted that a small proportion of a population (1-3%) would harm others if ordered to do so.

In the recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, he claims to only have been following orders". The author wanted to test this claim. Can people harm others because they are merely obeying orders? Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions?

The experiment will test whether a person can keep administer!ng painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so. The expectation is that very few will keep giving participants will disobey the order.

Methods

Participants

There were 30 male participants. They were recruited by advertisement in a newspaper and were paid $4.50. Instruments

A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they were giving an electric shock to another person in another room. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way upto 450 volts. The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were.

Procedures

The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the experiment The other "participant" was an actor. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor ("learner0) every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner.

The learner would pretend to be shocked. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition. Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock.

When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue.

Results

Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks. 14 persons did not obey the experimenter and stopped before reaching the highest levels. All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts.

Discussion/Conclusion

Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable. The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.

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References

[Read more about references here]

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