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Argumentative Essay定义_模型_结构_高分句型_范文

发布时间:2021-11-09 14:44:44 阅读:1287 作者:博远教育 字数:2924 字 预计阅读时间:7分钟
导读:ArgumentativeEssay也是留学论文写作中至关重要的一环,但是很多同学不清楚ArgumentativeEssay怎么写,那么本文博远教育小编就位大家分享ArgumentativeEssay写作技巧、範文及高分句型,帮助大家搞定这类Essay。

Argumentative Essay也是留学论文写作中至关重要的一环,但是很多同学不清楚Argumentative Essay怎么写,那么本文博远教育小编就位大家分享Argumentative Essay写作技巧、范文及高分句型,帮助大家搞定这类Essay。

1.Argumentative essay定义

Argumentative Essay也就是论证性论文,你需要在最大化了解论文内容的基础上,运用大量的事实、数据等内容来对你的观点或者看法进行论证。当然,它并不是论点、论据的简单罗列,它试图说服那些潜在的不同意见者。因此在一篇合格的Argumentative Essay中导师通常希望看到,你对所要表达观点的坚定态度以及如何变换写作技法以达到说服他人目的。

总结一下:Argumentative essay基本要求包括:

1)简洁论点 (你的主张,你的个人态度);

2)论据恰当 (必须具有实际意义,与主题和你的论点相关);

3)具有逻辑性的论证。

2.Argumentative Essay模型

Argumentative essay其实有多种风格,比如说,我们可以先提出一个论点,然后以故事论述支撑本论点并对其进行是非分析。也可以从两个不同论点对照开始,采用比较法对于对立的主张确定正确和错误,在结论部分归纳出自己的看法。不过对于刚开始接触Argumentative essay写作的新手们,推荐从三种主要模型开始练习:

2.1 Classical Argument

起源于亚里士多德辩证理论,本模型的目的是通过他人说服赢得辩论。为了证明自己观点绝对的正确性,小伙伴需要按照下面六个Part进行写作:

Part 1 引起读者注意力!介绍人们关心的问题,为你的论点奠定基础

Part 2 论述背景,为了解决这个问题应该知道哪些事实?

Part 3 阐述论点并指出下文将要讲什么

Part 4 提供论据和论证

Part 5 试着从对方角度考虑,反驳对方论据,避免论点的过度主观性

Part 6 对最重要的信息进行归纳,再次让读者接受你的论点

2.2 Rogerian Argument

美国心理学家Carl Rogers创造一种新辩证方式,即首先需要充分了解对方的观点,然后才提出自己的。像第一种模型那样,Rogerian Argument也必须包含几个Part:

Part 1 介绍所需要解决的问题

Part 2 将对方观点进行概括,尽量避免语言感情色彩,以此表示对另一方看法的尊重

Part 3 承认对方观点的合理性,哪些对立看法的论据你会同意?

Part 4 清晰地提出自己的论点

Part 5 描述你所持观点的情景,指出在哪种情况下你的观点是正确的

Part 6 列出你观点能带来的益处,展示对方接受你的主张将会受益,这样的写作结尾充满着希望和乐观语气

2.3 Toulmin argument

这种模型是英国哲学家Stephen Toulmin提出的,最适合学术写作,论辩Part如下:

Part 1 论点:像我们平时写的主旨句,表明观点和立场

Part 2 论据:数据、常识和经验观察等

Part 3 保证:一种理论上的规则,确保论据能够成立

Part 4 保证补充成分:补充成分和附加成分

Part 5 限定:限定主张成立的条件

Part 6 例外:指出反例

Argumentative Essay五大段结构

3.Argumentative Essay结构

除了上面三种模型,Argumentative Essay还有典型的五大段结构,即分为五大段落,其中包含三大部分:引言部分、论述主体部分及结论部分。这也是今天重点希望各位小伙伴们掌握的,这个结构非常容易上手,并能帮你们快速写出高分论文来!

Part 1 引言部分

引言部分浓缩了全文精华,表明作者观点和立场。如果处理得当,它能够快速抓住读者眼球,吸引读者继续阅读。在写作引言时,可以试着借助一件事实、一个主张、一句名言或个人经历来吸引读者目光。在引言段的结尾,要表明你的文章主题。采用从面到点的方式,即从一般性内容逐步引出你的观点主张。

Part 2 主体部分

在此部分,你需要逐个陈述自己的论点。如果不是长篇论文的话,建议最好将论点限制在3个,最多4个。每一段落描述一个论点,并搜集罗列相关的论据做支撑。此外,一篇优秀的Argumentative Essay,通常还包含对相反论点的驳斥。主体部分的结构如下:

1、目的:证明论点

2、主题句:借助事实、细节、例子等,围绕论点进行阐释的句子

3、阐释主题句:如需要,对主题句进行详细说明

4、引入论据:简明扼要的引入论据

5、详述论据:列出案例、事实、数据或名言等可以用来支撑论点的证据

6、解释论据:试着用1-3个句子,对论据进行详细阐释,帮助读者更好的理解

7、结论句:结论句重申论点,并作为结尾句

此外,你也可以选择,在每一段结尾处,一并阐述相反的观点及证明。对此可以根据文章安排,灵活进行选择。

Part 3 结论部分

这部分,无需重复上文的观点和想法。但不能仅仅去重述引言部分的内容。如果结论与引言部分内容相同,这表明你没有进行全面充分的批判性思考。在此部分,提到上文观点时,你可以换一种描述方式进行表述。此外,你可以重申文中已提到的1-2个强有力的论点。至少,借助总结段来重申立场是一个不错的选择。 

如果有可能的话,在结论段,可以考虑引用一个支持文章论点的,有压倒性的令人震惊的统计数据,以说服读者,让读者没有怀疑的余地。此外,你也可以通过提出疑问的方式邀请读者进一步讨论。

 Argumentative Essay必备高分句型

4.Argumentative Essay必备高分句型

4.1 引言部分高分句型:

Mottos are all around us, …encourages us to…, …suggests that we…, …motivates us to…

A rather common event of unknown…significance a common event resulting from…

This paper demonstrates the ability of…to perform robust and accurate

Detailed information has been acquired by the author about…

Evidence suggests that X is among the most important factors for…

…have emerged as powerful platforms for…

…has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields.

Since it was reported in…, … has been attracting a lot of interest.

4.2 主体部分高分句型:

To understand this issue,we first need to look at statistics.

The first reason is that…As …Studies have been done which support this and show …However…

The main challenge faced by many researchers is the…

…are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in…

Exposure to…has been shown to be related to adverse effects in…

Contrary to current cognitive theories, …

Previous published studies are limited to local surveys.

Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether…

This is the first study to undertake a longitudinal analysis of…

While a variety of definitions of the term…have been suggested, this paper will use the definition first suggested by… who saw it as …

The term…is a relatively new name for…, commonly referred to as…

4.3 结尾部分高分句型:

In conclusion…it is certainly beneficial for…

Based on these reasons it is clear that…

The thesis does not engage with…

A full discussion of…lies beyond the scope of this study.

The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that…

The importance and originality of this study are that it explores…

It is hoped that this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of…

This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring…

最后,还想提醒大家几点,当写Argumentative Essay时,建议大家向读者展示合理的、切中要害的论点。同时理清逻辑性的结论与情绪化的观点之间的差别,避免使用情绪化的语言。

5.Argumentative Essay范文参考

Why do we still need public libraries in the digital age?

As online learning becomes more common and more and more resources are converted to digital form,some people have suggested that public libraries should be shutdown and, in their place, everyone should be given an i Pad with an e-reader subscription.

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain.They also believe it wil encourage more people to read because they won't have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are.They could also access more materials because libraries won't have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets.First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources.A study done on table tvs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20%less information, and understand 10%less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print.Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness,dry eyes, headaches, and eyestrain, at much higher instances than reading print does.People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and backpain, carpal tunnel syndrome,and muscle strain.I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts.We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people,more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending.Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location.Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people away to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected.One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community.Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community.People see libraries as away to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can't offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution,it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them.It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to relyon.In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

上面这篇议论文范文的作者使用了我们上面说的第三种Toulmin模式的argumentative essay格式。本文探讨的话题是网络与电子版能否代替图书馆。首先,作者解释了为什么有些人觉得电子资源可以代替图书馆,换言之,提出了反方观点(counter-argument)。而后在论文的第三段首句介绍自己的观点:以电子书替代图书馆是一个很大的错误。在论文第三段和第四段中,作者针对这一观点人们可能存在的质疑进行了反驳。在此同时,他使用合适的理由、数据和事实对自己的论点进行了系统的说明,从而对自己观点的正确性进行了证明。论文的总结部分在最后一段,再次对观点进行了强调同时又对文章进行了总结与概括。

以上就是本篇关于argumentative essay写作内容,希望对大家有所帮助。欢迎有需要argumentative essay代写的同学们选择博远教育为您服务,12年老品牌,数百位海内外硕博精英写手,熟知各类essay格式,确保为大家写出高质量原创essay文稿,价格有诚意、分数有保障、服务有质量,欢迎咨询。

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