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英文Essay写作句型库分享

发布时间:2020-07-31 13:29:41 阅读:166 作者:致远教育 字数:2701 字 预计阅读时间:9分钟
导读:句型是我们在英文Essay写作中可以直接套用的。约翰·莫莱罗指出:“句型在性质上是内容中立和通用的。因此,在使用它们时,你并没有偷窃他人的想法,这并不构成剽窃。” 分类使用经过人们提炼的句型,我们可以只专注于填写内容,提高写作效率,规范学术语言,减少语法错误。

句型是我们在英文Essay写作中可以直接套用的。约翰·莫莱罗指出:“句型在性质上是内容中立和通用的。因此,在使用它们时,你并没有偷窃他人的想法,这并不构成剽窃。”  分类使用经过人们提炼的句型,我们可以只专注于填写内容,提高写作效率,规范学术语言,减少语法错误。

英文Essay写作句型

本文分享两部英文Essay写作句型并给出部分示例,第一部是免费网页版著作(也提供可下载的电子版,最新下载电子版需要付费),第二部是付费著作(含电子版和印刷版)。

第一部

作者:约翰·莫莱罗

约翰·莫莱罗(John Morley)是曼彻斯特大学全大学语言项目主任。该句型库分两大部分。第一部分包含六大类,分别是:

引言(Introducing Work)

文献引用(Referring to Sources)

描述方法(Describing Methods)

报道结果(Reporting Results)

讨论发现(Discussing Findings)

写结论(Writing Conclusions)

每一大类还分成若干子类。例如,结果报道的句型分为11个子类,详细见下方:

Reporting Results

1 Reference to aim or method

Changes in X and Y were compared using ….

Simple statistical analysis was used to ….

To assess X, the Y questionnaire was used.

To distinguish between these two possibilities, ….

T-tests were used to analyse the relationship between ….

In order to assess Z, repeated-measures ANOVAs were used.

Regression analysis was used to predict the….

The average scores of X and Y were compared in order to …

Nine items on the questionnaire measured the extent to which ….

The correlation between X and Y was tested.

The first set of analyses examined the impact of ….

To compare the scores three weeks after initial screening, a global ANOVA F-test was used.

A scatter diagram and a Pearson’s product moment correlation were used to determine the relationship between ….

2 Referring to data in a table or chart

1 Table 1 or Figure 1 shows (compares, presents,provides)

an overview of ….

the experimental data on X.

the summary statistics for ….

the breakdown of X according to ….

the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X.

the intercorrelations among the nine measures of X.

2 The table below illustrates or The piechart above shows

some of the main characteristics of the ….

the breakdown of ….

3 As shown in Figure 1 ( As can be seenfrom  Table 1, It can be seen from thedata in Table 1 that, From the graph above we can see that), the X groupreported significantly more Y than the other two groups.

4 The results obtained from the preliminaryanalysis of X (The results of the correlational analysis, The themes identifiedin these responses)

are shown

can be compared

are presented

are set out

are summarised

in Table 1 (in Figure 1).

3 Highlighting significant data in a table or chart

It is apparent from this table that very few ….

This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables …..

What is interesting in this data is that ….

In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing ….

As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two groups.

The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4

From the chart, it can be seen that by far the greatest demand is for ….

From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between ….

From this data, we can see that Study 2 resulted in the lowest value of ….

Data from this table can be compared withthe data in Table 4.6 which shows ….

4 Statements of positive result

Strong evidence of X was found when ….

This result is significant at the p = 0.05level.

There was a significant positive correlation between ….

There was a significant difference betweenthe two conditions ….

On average, Xs were shown to have ….

The mean score for X was ….

Interestingly, for those subjects with X,….

A positive correlation was found between Xand Y.

The results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that ….

A two-way ANOVA revealed that ….

Post hoc analysis revealed that during ….

Further analysis showed that ….

Further statistical tests revealed ….

5 Statements of negative result

There was no increase of X associated with…..

There were no significant differences between ….

No significant differences were found between ….

No increase in X was detected.

No difference greater than X was observed.

No significant reduction in X was found compared with placebo.

None of these differences were statistically significant.

Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measures.

The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between ….

A clear benefit of X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis.

Only trace amounts of X were detected in ….

6 Highlighting significant, interesting or surprising results

Interestingly, the X was observed to ….

Interestingly, this correlation is related to ….

The more surprising correlation is with the….

The most surprising aspect of the data is in the ….

The most striking result to emerge from the data is that ….

The correlation between X and Y is interesting because ….

Interestingly, there were also differences in the ratios of ….

The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison was ….

7 Reporting a reaction

When X cells were stimulated with Y, no significant difference in the number of Z was detected.

However, stimulation of X cells with Y did not increase the ….

Following the addition of X, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the Y was recorded.

With successive increases in intensity ofthe X, the Y moved further to ….

8 Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews

The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.

Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire.

Thirty-two individuals returned the questionnaires.

By the end of the survey period, data hadbeen collected from 64 individuals, 23 of whom were ….

This section of the questionnaire required respondents to give information on ….

Respondents were asked to indicate whether….

Respondents were asked to suggest other reasons for ….

There were 53 responses to the question:‘….?’

The total number of responses for this question was ….

The overall response to this question was poor.

In response to the question: ‘….?’, a range of responses was elicited.

In response to Question 1, most of those surveyed indicated that ….

The overall response to this question was very positive.

When the participants were asked ……, the majority commented that ….

Other responses to this question included….

The majority of those who responded to this item felt that ….

70% of those who were interviewed indicated that …..

Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%)said that …..

Just over half of those who answered this question reported that ….

Over half of those surveyed reported that….

Approximately half of those surveyed did not comment on …..

Of the 62 participants who responded to this question, 30 reported an increase in ….

Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that ….

A small number of those interviewed suggested that …..

Only a small number of respondents indicated that ….

Some participants expressed the belief that…..

One individual stated that ‘….’ And another commented ‘….’

A minority of participants (17%) indicated that ….

One participant commented: ‘ ….’

Another interviewee alluded to the notion of ….

9 Observations about qualitative data

The themes of X and Y recurred throughout the dataset.

Five broad themes emerged from the analysis.

Two discrete reasons emerged from this.First …. Second .…

A number of issues were identified .…

This theme came up for example indiscussions of .…

A recurrent theme in the interviews was a sense amongst interviewees that …

These views surfaced mainly in what respects .…

There was a sense of X amongst interviewees.…

A variety of perspectives were expressed .…

A common view amongst interviewees was that.…

Issues related to X were not particularly prominent in the interview data.

In their accounts of the events surrounding….

As one interviewee said: ….

As one interviewee put it: ….

For example, one interviewee said: ….

Talking about this issue an interviewee said: ….

Another interviewee, when asked …, said: ….

The extract/comment below shows ….

Some interviewees argued that .… while others .…

Some felt that .… while others considered that .…

Two divergent and often conflicting discourses emerged .…

Whilst a minority mentioned that… all agreed that…

 10 Transition statements

If we now turn to ….

A comparison of the two results reveals ….

Turning now to the experimental evidence on….

Comparing the two results, it can be seen that ….

The next section of the survey wasconcerned with ….

In the final part of the survey, respondents were asked ….

11 Summary and transition

These results suggest that ….

Overall, these results indicate that …

Together these results provide importantinsights into ….

Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between …

In summary, these results show that ….

The results in this Chapter indicate that…. The next Chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the ….

第二部分按功能介绍句型。功能包括如下11个类别:

使用谨慎语言(Being Cautious)

批判性思维(Being Critical)

分类与罗列(Classifying and Listing)

比较与对比(Compare and Contrast)

定义术语(Defining Terms)

描述趋势(Describing Trends)

表述数量(Describing Quantities)

解释原因(Explaining Causality)

举例(Giving Examples)

示意过渡(Signalling Transition)

描述过去(Writing about the Past)

第二部

作者:巴罗佐

路易斯·屋大维·巴罗佐(Luiz Otávio Barros)在20世纪90年代末为他的硕士论文阅读收集了数百个句型,并发现这些句型有助于他后来的学术写作。

学术写作句型

为了帮助其他硕士/博士生掌握这些句型,他于2016年发表了包含600个例子的句型库著作。为了让读者欣赏部分句型,分12类给出了70个句型(见下面的滑动窗口)。

70 useful sentences for academic writing

第1组——辩论Argue

a. Along similar lines, [X] argues that ___.

b. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that ___.

c. As a rebuttal to this point, it could be argued that ___.

d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___.

e. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___.

f. [X]’s argument in favor of / against [Y] runs as follows: ___.

第2组——断言Claim

a. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___.

b. [X] develops the claim that ___.

c. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___.

d. [X]’s findings lend support to the claim that ___.

e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___.

第3组——数据Data

a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggest that ___.

b. The data appears to suggest that ___.

c. The data yielded by this [study] provide strong / convincing evidence that ___.

d. A closer look at the data indicates that ___.

e. The data generated by [X] are reported in [table 1].

f. The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___.

第4组——争论Debate

a. [X] has encouraged debate on ___.

b. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___.

c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years].

d. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___.

第5组——讨论Discussion

a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___.

b. The foregoing discussion implies that ___.

c. For the sake of discussion, I would like to argue that ___.

d. In this study, the question under discussion is ___.

e. In this paper, the discussion centers on ___.

f. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___.

第6组——证据Evidence

a. The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___.

b. On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___.

c. There is overwhelming evidence for the notion that ___.

d. Further evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___.

e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___.

第7组——根据(基础)Ground

a. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___.

b. On logical grounds, there is no compelling reason to argue that ___.

c. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___.

d. On these grounds, we can argue that ___.

e. [X]’s views are grounded on the assumption that ___.

第8组——问题(研究主题)Issue

a. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___.

b. In the present study, the issue under scrutiny is ___. 

c. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by the fact that ___.

d. To portray the issue in [X]’s terms, ___.

e. Given the centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___.

f. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___.

第9组——文献Literature

a. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y].

b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___.

c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___.

d. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of ___.

第10组——前提(假设)Premise

a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___.

b. [X] and [Y] share an important premise: ___.

c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___.

d. The basic premises of [X]’s theory / argument are ___.

e. The arguments against [X]’s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___.

第11组——研究Research

a.This study draws on research conducted by ___.

b. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___.

c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___.

d. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___.

e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___.

f. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___.

g. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___.

h. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about / on ___.

第12组——观点View

a. The consensus view seems to be that ___.

b. [X] propounds the view that ___.

c. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view.

d. There have been dissenters to the view that ___.

e. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut as popular views might suggest.

f. The view that _____ is in line with [common sense].

g. I am not alone in my view that ___.

h. [X] puts forward the view that ___.

i. [X]’s views rest on the assumption that ___.

以上就是全部关于英文Essay写作句型分享,有需要这些句型的小伙伴们赶紧收藏吧~

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