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7P行销组合模型分析应用及范文案例

发布时间:2020-05-03 15:23:38 阅读:425 作者:致远教育 字数:2029 字 预计阅读时间:7分钟
导读:4P营销组合模型是在marketing论文中常用的行销模版,7P营销组合在传统的4P基础上,即产品、价格、管道和促销,又增加了3P,分别是人员(Participant)、有形展示(PhysicalEvidence)和过程管理(ProcessManagement)。本文就为大...

4P营销组合模型是在marketing论文中常用的行销模版,7P营销组合在传统的4P基础上,即产品、价格、管道和促销,又增加了3P,分别是人员(Participant)、有形展示(Physical Evidence)和过程管理(Process Management)。本文就为大家带来7P行销组合模型分析应用及范文案例。

麦卡锡在1964年提出4P行销组合,即产品、价格、管道和促销,他认为企业在做好市场调查之后,能够卖出企业生产质量好的产品,并且订定合理的价格,培养建立经销商和销售渠道,在透过不同的推广方式促成交易,达成企业的行销目标。行销4P一直以来广被全球的学术界与营销人员采用,且是在marketing论文中常用的行销模版。

4P行销组合

1.产品(Product)

产品的种类、质量、设计、功能、包装、大小、保固注重开发的功能,并且有独特的卖点。

2.价格(Price)

消费者愿意对于产品付出的费用。根据不同的市场定位,制定不同的价格策略,产品的定价与企业的品牌战略非常相关,价格就相对应着品牌的要带给消费者的感觉。

3.渠道(Place)

消费者接触到产品的方式或是渠道。产品从生产者转嫁到消费者个人或组织企业团体,消费者购买或取得产品或服务的管道。

4.推广(Promotion)

市场行销者透过广告、促销、公共报道、与人员销售等方式与消费者沟通,可以让不同的群体可以了解产品。

4P是麦肯锡当时针对制造业设计,随着时代的演变,市场从制造导向慢慢转为全面消费者导向,服务业也突飞猛进的成长,于是布姆斯(Booms)和比特纳(Bitner)将下面3个P增加到了原有的4P营销组合中。7P营销组合在传统的4P基础上,即产品、价格、管道和促销,又增加了3P,分别是人员(Participant)、有形展示(Physical Evidence)和过程管理(Process Management)。

7P行销组合

5.人员(Participant)

在营销组合里,意指人为元素,扮演着传递与接受服务的角色。换言之,也就是公司的服务人员与顾客。在现代营销实践中,公司的服务人员极为关键,他(她)们可以完全影响顾客对服务质量的认知与喜好。尤其是服务业,人员素质参差不齐,服务表现的质量就无法达到一致的要求。人员也包括未购买及已购买服务的顾客。营销经理人不仅要处理公司与已购顾客之间的互动关系还得兼顾未购顾客的行为与态度。

6.有形展示(Physical Evidence)

可以解释为:商品与服务本身的展示亦即使所促销的东西更加贴近顾客。有形展示的重要性在于顾客能从中得到可触及的线索,去体认你所提供的服务质量。因此,最好的服务是将无法触及的东西变成有形的服务。

7.过程管理(Process Management)

这里的过程是指,顾客获得服务前所必经的过程。进一步说,如果顾客在获得服务前必须排队等待,那么这项服务传递到顾客手中的过程,时间的耗费即为重要的考虑因素。

下面以Tesco为例进行7P Analysis,供大家参考学习。

Tesco Marketing mix

Product in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco provides a wide range of products that include food, clothing, electronics, financial services etc. This ever-expanding, product line caters to every possible need of its consumers and has thus expanded into the online marketing sector too! It offers grocery delivery service and free music downloads besides the other 40,000 or more product lines that its retail stores exhibit.

乐购提供的产品种类繁多,包括食品、服装、电子产品、金融服务等。这一不断扩大的产品线迎合了消费者的每一种可能需求,因此也扩展到了网络营销领域!除了零售店展示的其他40000条或更多产品线外,它还提供杂货店送货服务和免费音乐下载。

Price in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco attempts to maintain as low prices as possible without reducing the quality of its products or running itself in loss. In order to pass all cost advantages to its customers and keep them happy, it uses a number of measures which includes the economies of scale it enjoys.

乐购试图保持尽可能低的价格,而不降低产品质量,也不让自己陷入亏损。为了将所有成本优势传递给客户并让他们满意,它采用了许多措施,其中包括它所享有的规模经济。

特易购产品

Place in the Marketing mix of Tesco

It is headquartered in Chestnut, Hertfordshire, England. Its stores are spread far and wide in the world. It employs two main channels of distribution for its products and services – online and offline.

总部位于英国赫特福德郡的切斯特纳特。它的商店遍布世界各地。它的产品和服务有两个主要的分销渠道——线上和线下。

Promotions in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco’s biggest advantage is its low prices. This is what sets it apart from other supermarket chains. And this is what it uses to enhance its brand image. Its major objective has always been to improve its brand image by reducing costs and being true to its words while maximizing its profit. To this end, it makes use of television advertisements, offers promotional discounts, sponsors charitable events, uses point of sale strategies and so on.

特易购最大的优势是价格低廉。这就是它区别于其他连锁超市的原因。这就是它用来提升品牌形象的方法。它的主要目标一直是通过降低成本、信守承诺、实现利润最大化来提升品牌形象。为此,它利用电视广告、提供促销折扣、赞助慈善活动、使用销售点策略等。

Physical evidence in the Marketing mix of Tesco

The Tesco stores are not overly elaborate like those of Sainsbury and other grocery stores. This is because Tesco doesn’t see the point in spending more than the necessary amount of money on furbishing its stores. Having said this, all its stores are clean attractive. They are easy to navigate with all products well categorized and easy to find. Offers are also placed such that they lure customers into buying more than what they need, all the while feeling that they are in fact conserving their financial resources. The Tesco Website is also simple and easy to operate.

特易购的商店不像塞恩斯伯里和其他杂货店那样精心设计。这是因为乐购认为,花在商店装修上的钱没有必要超过必要的数额。说到这里,它所有的商店都很干净,很吸引人。它们易于导航,所有产品分类良好,易于查找。优惠也会吸引顾客购买比他们需要的更多的东西,同时感觉他们实际上是在节约他们的财政资源。乐购网站也简单易操作。

特易购商场环境

People in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco’s excellent sales assistants are also greatly responsible for its success. It uses programs such as Colleague Privilege card, Save As You Earn, and Buy As You Earn to gain the loyalty of its workers. Its employees are highly competent and well-compensated for their contributions to making Tesco a success.

乐购优秀的销售助理也对其成功负有很大责任。它使用诸如“同事特权卡”、“按收入储蓄”和“按收入购买”等计划来获得员工的忠诚度。它的员工非常称职,他们为特易购的成功所做的贡献得到了很好的补偿。

Process in the Marketing mix of Tesco

The Process aspect of a marketing mix in Tesco’s case refers to the process of keeping its customers happy by speedy billing services and easy acquirement of products in its stores offline as well as online. Tesco achieves this by employing competent staff and paying attention to customer grievances and addressing issues that create them.

在特易购的案例中,营销组合的流程方面指的是通过快速的账单服务和轻松地在其商店中离线和在线购买产品来保持客户满意的流程。乐购通过雇佣称职的员工,关注客户的不满情绪,解决产生不满情绪的问题来实现这一目标。

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