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Critique(Critical Review)怎么写?

发布时间:2021-06-22 16:33:42 阅读:168 作者:致远教育 字数:2834 字 预计阅读时间:7分钟
导读:留学生在国外求学期间不免会遇到一种作业,那就是Critique或者CriticalReview,但是很多同学不知道怎么写,那么作为专业代写机构,本文为大家分享这类作业的写作方法以及一些常用句式。Critique(CriticalReview)是一种完全独立的,完整的文本,用...

留学生在国外求学期间不免会遇到一种作业,那就是Critique或者Critical Review,但是很多同学不知道怎么写,那么作为专业代写机构,本文为大家分享这类作业的写作方法以及一些常用句式。

Critique(Critical Review)怎么写?

首先,记住一点,Critique(or Critical Review)它不是literature review。Critical review,也称之为critique,它是一种完全独立的,完整的文本,用来详细讨论某篇特定的文章或者某本特定的书,并带有一定的批判性评论。当然了,有时候,一篇critique也会同时对两三篇文章进行讨论比较,也就是所谓的comparative critical review。而literature review,虽说也是带有批判性的评论,但它并非像critical review那样是一篇完全独立的文本,而是一篇比较大的文本中的一小部分,一个章节。像我们留学生最常接触到的就是dissertation中的literature review了,它属于整篇dissertation中的一部分,因此,你永远也不会见到单独成篇的literature review

第一步:反复多看几遍要critical review的那篇文章或那本书。

你既然要做critical review,那就要对你要拿来做critical review的那篇文章或那本书极其熟悉,这能让你写critical review的时候更容易上手。当然,在看书的同时,你要做好笔记。至于笔记应该怎么做,下面我列举了15个问题,你应该带着这些问题去阅读,并针对如何回答这些问题去做笔记。

你所阅读的是哪种类型的文章或书(它是带有事实数据,还是仅仅只有理论论证)?

它的内容所呈现的主要是哪一领域的问题?

它有什么新的发现(事实证据或理论观点)?

它有没有阐明自己的研究或论证带有局限性,有的话是什么?

作者所提供的数据和证据从哪里而来?它们是否真实合理,质量是否过关,数量是否充足?

作者所提出的主要问题是什么?

作者所提出的其它问题是什么?

这些问题是怎样被解决的?解决的方式是否完美?

关于作者所提出的问题,他自己的主要观点和解释是什么?

作者的表态是否公平,是否不带有偏见,是否不带有个人色彩?

作者的观点是否有自相矛盾的地方?

在这篇文章的这一主题之下,还有没有其它文章与它是有所联系的?

这篇文章所呈现的内容与你自己的经历和观点有没有什么联系?

作者是否还提到了别的什么东西?

是否有其他人在看过这篇文章后发表了相关评论?他们是怎么说的?你是否同意他们的观点?

第二步:概括那篇文章或那本书

首先,你要对你读的这篇文章或这本书做一个内容概括。因为,你写的critical review的读者也许没有读过你拿来做critical review的这篇文章或这本书。听起来可能有些绕口,但现实就有可能发生这种情况,你们自己好好捋一捋。

当你对这篇文章或这本书做内容概括的时候,你应该:

第一,集中在你自己更感兴趣的点上。

第二,概括作者的主要观点和论点。

第三,概括作者的这些观点和论点是如何构成的(举个例子,作者的观点和论点是否是基于他所收集的事实数据之上,还是说纯粹是基于理论知识)。

另外,在你的内容概括之中,你还应该回答以下这些问题:

为什么你和作者都要讨论这一话题,讨论这一话题的意义在哪儿?

这一话题应该属于哪一类栏目?政策研究类?社会科学类?环境保护类?

有没有别的比较有名的作家也写过类似的话题?

第三步

第三步:评价那篇文章或那本书

评价是你的critical review中最重要的一部分。用你拿来做critique的文献去支撑你的个人观点。也可以用你做研究时得到的知识和你的经验去支撑你的个人观点。你所作出的评价可以是非常直白的,也可以是比较含蓄的。

那么,什么是直白的评价,什么又是含蓄的评价,下面小编来详细解释一下。

直白的评价:

直白的评价意味着你会非常直接的向读者表明,你打算如何去评论这篇文献。小编直接从一篇critical review中摘抄一段话来给大家举个例子。

“I will review this article by focusing on the following questions. First, I will examine the extent to which the authors contribute to current thought on Second Language Acquisition (SLA) pedagogy. After that, I will analyse whether the authors' propositions are feasible within overseas SLA classrooms.”

感受一下,作者是不是非常直白的表明了自己打算如何对这篇文章做评论。

含蓄的评价:

那什么又是含蓄的评价?含蓄的评价就是不那么直接,你往往只是在你的critical review中定位和分析作者的观点,而不是直接提出对作者的观点的批评。

第四步:合理运用Critical review的语言特征

关于这一部分,小编将提供一堆例句供大家参考,能给到大家非常直观的帮助。

首先是概括性语言文字:

     This article / book is divided into two / three parts. First...

    While the title might suggest...

    The tone appears to be...

    Title is the first / second volume in the series Title, edited by...The books / articles in this series address...

    The second / third claim is based on...

    The author challenges the notion that...

    The author tries to find a more middle ground / make more modest claims...

    The article / book begins with a short historical overview of...

    Numerous authors have recently suggested that...(see Author, Year; Author, Year). Author would also be once such author. With his / her argument that...

    To refer to title as a...is not to say that it is...

    This book / article is aimed at... This intended readership...

    The author's book / article examines the...To do this, the author first...

    The author develops / suggests a theoretical / pedagogical model to…

    This book / article positions itself firmly within the field of...

    The author in a series of subtle arguments, indicates that he / she...

    The argument is therefore...

    The author asks "..."

    With a purely critical / postmodern take on...

    Topic, as the author points out, can be viewed as...

    In this recent contribution to the field of...this British author...

    As a leading author in the field of...

    This book / article nicely contributes to the field of...and complements other work by this author...

    The second / third part of...provides / questions / asks the reader...

    Title is intended to encourage students / researchers to...

    The approach taken by the author provides the opportunity to examine...in a qualitative / quantitative research framework that nicely complements...

    The author notes / claims that state support / a focus on pedagogy / the adoption of...remains vital if...

    According to Author (Year) teaching towards examinations is not as effective as it is in other areas of the curriculum. This is because, as Author (Year) claims that examinations have undue status within the curriculum.

     According to Author (Year)…is not as effective in some areas of the curriculum / syllabus as others. Therefore the author believes that this is a reason for some school's…

其次是评论性语言文字:

    This argument is not entirely convincing, as...furthermore it commodifies / rationalises the...

    Over the last five / ten years the view of...has increasingly been viewed as 'complicated' (see Author, Year; Author, Year).

    However, through trying to integrate...with...the author...

    There are difficulties with such a position.

    Inevitably, several crucial questions are left unanswered / glossed over by this insightful / timely / interesting / stimulating book / article. Why should...

    It might have been more relevant for the author to have written this book / article as...

    This article / book is not without disappointment from those who would view...as...

    This chosen framework enlightens / clouds...

    This analysis intends to be...but falls a little short as...

    The authors rightly conclude that if...

    A detailed, well-written and rigorous account of...

    As a Korean student I feel that this article / book very clearly illustrates...

    The beginning of...provides an informative overview into...

    The tables / figures do little to help / greatly help the reader...

    The reaction by scholars who take a...approach might not be so favourable (e.g. Author, Year).

    This explanation has a few weaknesses that other researchers have pointed out (see Author, Year; Author, Year). The first is...

    On the other hand, the author wisely suggests / proposes that...By combining these two dimensions...

    The author's brief introduction to...may leave the intended reader confused as it fails to properly...

    Despite my inability to...I was greatly interested in...

    Even where this reader / I disagree(s), the author's effort to...

    The author thus combines...with...to argue...which seems quite improbable for a number of reasons. First...

    Perhaps this aversion to...would explain the author's reluctance to...

    As a second language student from ...I find it slightly ironic that such an Anglo-centric view is...

    The reader is rewarded with...

    Less convincing is the broad-sweeping generalisation that...

    There is no denying the author's subject knowledge nor his / her...

    The author's prose is dense and littered with unnecessary jargon...

    The author's critique of...might seem harsh but is well supported within the literature (see Author, Year; Author, Year; Author, Year). Aligning herself with the author, Author (Year) states that...

    As it stands, the central focus of Title is well / poorly supported by its empirical findings...

    Given the hesitation to generalise to...the limitation of...does not seem problematic...

    For instance, the term...is never properly defined and the reader left to guess as to whether...

    Furthermore, to label...as...inadvertently misguides...

    In addition, this research proves to be timely / especially significant to... as recent government policy / proposals has / have been enacted to...

    On this well researched / documented basis the author emphasises / proposes that...

    Nonetheless, other research / scholarship / data tend to counter / contradict this possible trend / assumption...(see Author, Year; Author, Year).

    Without entering into detail of the..., it should be stated that Title should be read by...others will see little value in...

    As experimental conditions were not used in the study the word 'significant' misleads the reader.

    The article / book becomes repetitious in its assertion that...

    The thread of the author's argument becomes lost in an overuse of empirical data...

    Almost every argument presented in the final section is largely derivative, providing little to say about...

    She / he does not seem to take into consideration; however, that there are fundamental differences in the conditions of…

    As Author (Year) points out, however, it seems to be necessary to look at…

    This suggest that having low…does not necessarily indicate that…is ineffective.

    Therefore, the suggestion made by Author (Year)…is difficult to support.

    When considering all the data presented…it is not clear that the low scores of some students, indeed, reflects…

最后是总结性语言文字:

    Overall this article / book is an analytical look at...which within the field of...is often overlooked.

    Despite its problems, Title offers valuable theoretical insights / interesting examples / a contribution to pedagogy and a starting point for students / researchers of...with an interest in...

    This detailed and rigorously argued...

    This first / second volume / book / article by...with an interest in...is highly informative...

案例分析

案例分析:

有时候,当留学生们上交自己辛辛苦苦写的critical review后,却最终只获得一个低分,并被老师告知自己写的这篇critical review不够具有批判性。何解?以下两个案例做的都是同一篇文章的同一个章节的critical review,让我们对比一下它们有何不同。

案例一:

There is a strong positive effect on students, both educationally and emotionally, when the instructors try to learn to say students' names without making pronunciation errors (Kiang, 2004).

案例二:

Kiang (2004) gives various examples to support his claim that "the positive emotional and educational impact on students is clear" (p.210) when instructors try to pronounce students' names in the correct way. He quotes one student, Nguyet, as saying that he "felt surprised and happy" (p.211) when the tutor said his name clearly. The emotional effect claimed by Kiang is illustrated in quotes such as these, although the educational impact is supported more indirectly through the chapter. Overall, he provides more examples of students being negatively affected by incorrect pronunciation, and it is difficult to find examples within the text of a positive educational impact as such.

可以看到,案例一仅仅是对文章内容做了一个简单的概括,不带有任何批判性分析,给人感觉写这个critique的同学好像完全同意作者的观点,因此,这不是一个好的例文。

而案例二则指出作者用来支撑他自己的观点的例子并不平衡,不够全面地支撑他的观点,因此,案例二是带有一定批判性的,是一个值得参考的例文。

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