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帮写留学作业如何“Critical Writing”?

发布时间:2020-07-13 09:48:02 阅读:104 作者:致远教育 字数:1708 字 预计阅读时间:6分钟
导读:关于留学作业写作,有的同学“下笔如有神”,而有的同学则是“一筹莫展”,最后不得不找帮写完成。想到留学作业里markers给的comments,通篇的“toodescriptive”,原因在于没有把握CriticalWriting。那么如何CriticalWriting?作为...

关于留学作业写作,有的同学“下笔如有神”,而有的同学则是“一筹莫展”,最后不得不找帮写完成。想到留学作业里markers给的comments,通篇的“too descriptive”,原因在于没有把握Critical Writing。那么如何Critical Writing?作为专业帮写留学生作业机构,本文致远教育小编来为大家一探究竟。

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首先,明确帮写留学作业目的

首先我们来聊聊帮写留学作业前的准备工作,在写作之前,我们可以先问自己以下几个问题,明确写作目的。

• What am I writing about?

• What is the purpose of this paper?

•What are the main points I want my readers/markers to understand?

• Who is the intended audience?

那么对于留学作业来讲,一个很直接的目的就是,拿高分!顺利毕业!看起来是一个很宏大的计划,需要“过五关斩六将”,哈哈哈,其实也没有那么夸张。如果我们把这个“big plan”细分成“small steps”,看起来就没有那么可怕了!

其次,帮写留学作业前准备

在正式开始论文写作之前,我们可以先做到如下几点:

Read the instructions for the dissertation handbook thoroughly to ensure that you have a clear understanding of the expectations; 

Use the instructions to form the paper’s basic outline or headings, i.e. Introduction, Literature review, Research design…; 

More importantly, pay attention to the assessment criteria!!!  

(温馨提示:在写作过程中,也要时不时地去回顾“ assessment criteria”里的内容,to make sure you are on the right track) 

落实好你的research proposal后,就到了开始搜寻文献,大量阅读,构建论文思路的时候了,下面我们以准备文献综述为例,讲一下具体步骤。

文献综述

然后。帮写留学作业具体步骤

 1. Identify research themes

(Themes refers to general keywords, ideas, and categories related to the research topic of your paper. )

一开始面对大量的信息,可能会觉得无从下手,别担心,这是很正常的。静下心来仔细研读文献,你会挖掘出。边读边做笔记,总结文献中的重要信息,慢慢地你就会发现 “themes within the research studies and literature” ,基于这些themes来构思论文的headings and subheadings,最后你的文献综述的框架就搭好啦。

 2. Outlines and graphic organizers

(Outline: An outline sets forth the thesis and lists the major points that will be made to support or prove the thesis. Each major point can be further elaborated upon with minor points and subtopics. A linear outline is a map of an assignment, with a clear path from Point A (the thesis) to Point B (the conclusion). The path between the two points is composed of the major points and subtopics presented to support the thesis statement.)

这是一个很好的方法,因为很多时候,如果在写作之前没有一个思路清晰逻辑周密的“outline” , 我们很容易在写作的过程中遭遇滑铁卢,很可能洋洋洒洒地写了一大堆,但是发现都是“irrelevant parts”。搭建论文框架可以帮助“规划”我们的留学作业写作。

在这里介绍两种亲测有效的方法:

a) Using a linear outline

具体做法:先尝试构建major points of your paper, 然后通过从文献中提取有用信息作为supporting evidence, 形成minor points。

具体建议:

• 以main ideas and concepts构建大标题

• 用分级标题细化

• 注意分不同的角度/观点呈现

• 用不同颜色的笔标出关键信息

• 你可以给每个点标注好序号,使结构更加清晰

• 注意笔记简洁

b) 我们也可以通过搭建concept map的形式,依个人习惯而定哦!举个例子:

concept map

做好前面的准备工作后,我们开始以写作的方式实现“知识输出”了。

3. Put your critical reviews to writing

首先我们明确两个概念,Summary vs. Synthesis

• Summary is recap of important information

• Synthesis is a re-organization, or weaving, of that information

a) It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with the old

b) It might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates

特别是文献综述写作,不是对文献的简要概括再叠加,而是通过对整合多篇文献信息, 并加入自己的interpretation。

我们先来看一个反面例子:

Brown (2008) studied A and found Y. Roberts (2012) investigated B and found X and Y. Peterson (2007, 2013) conducted a long-term investigation into C and found X, Y and Z. 

注意,我们的文章需要体现:

• Arguments from different sources & link them together

• Your own analysis & interpretation. Analysis is not just your opinion, it needs to be supported by the literature

可以用如下方式呈现:

a) Distant to close 

Most distantly related to your work → Most closely related to your work 

b) Chronological 

Earliest related work → Most recent related work 

c) Comparison and contrast of different approaches or particular features or characteristics of relevant theories and research

One approach → An alternative approach → Another approach 

Most early theories of motivation were concerned with need satisfaction. Robbins, Millet, Cacioppe and Waters-Marsh (1998) argued that motivation relies on what a person needs and wants. Similarly, the early theories of Maslow and McGregor (Robbins et al 1998) focused on personal needs satisfaction as the basis for motivational behavior. However, recent studies outlined by Leonard, Beauvais and Scholl (1999) suggest that personality and disposition play an equally important role in motivation. Current thinking does not discount these theories, but simply builds on them to include a self-concept. 

4. 规范学术用语

在写文献综述或者陈述自己的观点的时候,很多同学喜欢用“Author A says …, Author B mentions…”呈现,但是在这些表达观点的学术用语在使用上也是有讲究的哦!注意区分:

• that which is certainly true:

- e.g. Influenza is caused by a virus.

• that which is only probably true [how probable?]:

- e.g. Schizophrenia seems to result from an interaction between genetic factors and environmental stressors. 

• that which is only possibly true:

- e.g. A student group may perform badly on an assignment because of interpersonal conflict between group members. 

Hedges

• Used to indicate various levels of a lack of complete certainty.

• Also used to be diplomatic when critiquing the work of others.

e.g. Suggest / may; seem; believe / could; appear to; might; hypothesise; assume / likely; speculate; possible; might

Boosters

• Indicators of conviction:

e.g. Show that / always; demonstrate / substantially; clearly show / will; fact that;

obviously / will

Certainly true 

Tyacke and Mendelsohn’s (1986) diary study showed that lower-level students always depended far more on their teacher and on grammar rules than higher-level students. 

Politzer (1983) demonstrated that females used social learning strategies substantially more often than males. 

The findings clearly show that in typical language learning situations women will use more learning strategies than men. 

Probably true 

• Research suggests that higher-level students may use more effective foreign language learning strategies than students with lower ability. 

• According to several researchers, it seems that language students use different strategies as they progress. 

• Many researchers assume that the learner’s level of motivation is likely to influence the choice of strategies.

Possibly true (conjectures based on relevant knowledge or theory) 

• These gender differences might be explained by differences in communication preferences. 

• We hypothesize however that after strategy training, men and women will both show strategy strengths. 

• We speculate that the problem was low motivation for language learning. 

• Politzer and McGroarty (1985) report the possible importance of language learning goals. 

Key signal / signposting words used in critical writing

Key signal / signposting words

5. Integrating critical literature reviews into your dissertation

可以参考下图的帮写留学作业框架,帮助大概厘清各个章节需要涉及的内容:

帮写留学作业框架

以上就是致远教育小编为大家总结的关于帮写留学作业的相关知识和技巧,欢迎阅读,如有帮写留学作业需要,欢迎联系网站客服。

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