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Argumentative Essay怎么写?

发布时间:2020-06-12 13:13:18 阅读:127 作者:致远教育 字数:3120 字 预计阅读时间:10分钟
导读:众多留学生作业写作类型中,ArgumentativeEssay(议论文)就是施展你的个人想法最佳方法。但是很多留学生不知道ArgumentativeEssay怎么写或者怎么写好ArgumentativeEssay。本文致远教育小编为大家解释一下ArgumentativeEs...

众多留学生作业写作类型中,Argumentative Essay(议论文)就是施展你的个人想法最佳方法。但是很多留学生不知道Argumentative Essay怎么写或者怎么写好Argumentative Essay。本文致远教育小编为大家解释一下Argumentative Essay写作结构、Argumentative Essay写作题目、其主要特点以及撰写套路。

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY是什么?

Argumentative Essay是什么?

国外的argumentative essay和国内的议论文都是很常见的作业形式。与其他essay种类比起来,argumentative essay的目的是传达作者对某个问题或某件事表达自己的立场和个人态度。通过对于论文主题进行评论,作者务必要提出thesis statement (论文陈述)并应用真实可靠论据与推理来证明它。Argumentative essay基本要求包括:

1)简洁论点 (是你的主张,你的个人态度);

2)论据恰当 (必须具有实际意义,与主题和你的论点相关);

3)具有逻辑性的论证。

Argumentative Essay结构:三种文体

上文是argumentative essay的一种概括。但如果留学生愿意更为深入了解议论文结构与写作形式,请往下看。Argumentative essay其实非常多种多样,每个学子都会找到适合个人写作风格的议论文。比如说,我们可以先提出一个论点,然后以故事论述支撑本论点并对其是非进行分析。也可以以两个不同论点对照开始,采用比较法对于对立的主张确定正确和错误,于是在结论归纳出自己的看法。

第一种:CLASSICAL ARGUMENT

起源于亚里士多德辩证理论,本argumentative essay模型的目的是通过他人说服赢得辩论。为了证明自己观点绝对的正确性,小伙伴需要按照下面六个要素进行写作:

第一,引起读者的注意力。介绍人们关心的疑问,为了你的论点奠定基础;

第二,论述背景,即为了解决主题制定的辩论我们应该知道哪些事实?

第三,根据在第一和第二步提供的信息表明自己的观点并指出下文将要讲什么;

第四,提供论据和论证;

第五,我们都应该考虑到对方的论据。因此,第五议论文的要素是反驳对方论据,这样做着能避免论点的过度主观性。

第六,为最重要的信息进行归纳。再次回顾一下让读者接受你论点的论证

接下来,我以简单英文对话展示议论文的classical argument模型:

1. Lucia! (第一,引起注意力)

2. Stop teasing your sister. She had a tough day at dancing class. (第二,背景)

3. If I hear you gloat about getting a lead role in the play one more time, you are going to be punished. (第三,论点)

4. In the past 20 minutes you have mentioned it three times already. She is crying in her room. She knows that you’ll be Elza in winter play. You are just being mean (第四,论据)

5. I know she never misses a chance to tease you with her straight A on math too, but you have to set a good example for her (第五,反驳对方的论点)

6. If you say one more thing about that winter play, I will put you in timeout. I don’t care if we are in a supermarket and your friends are watching. (第六,归纳和总结)

第二种:ROGERIAN ARGUMENT

美国心理学家Carl Rogers曾今启发了辞修学家创造一种新辩证方式,即首先需要充分了解对方的观点,然后才提出自己的。就像classical argument模型那样,rogerian argument也必须包含几项主要要素:

第一,介绍所需要解决的问题;

第二,对于对方观点进行概括,尽量避免语言感情色彩,以此表示对对立看法的尊重;

第三, 承认对方观点的合理性。哪些对立看法的论据你会同意?哪些论据连会与他人分享?

第四,清晰地提出自己的论点;

第五,陈述所持观点的情景。指出一下,在哪种情况下你的观点是100%正确的,以此表示并承认他人最可能不会总是同意你的立场,反而这可能是与对方达成共识的机会;

第六,列出你观点所带来的益处。展示对方从接受你的主张如何能够受益,这样你的写作结尾充满着希望和乐观语气。

1. Lucia, you still haven’t finished your homework. (提出所存在的问题);

2. I know that you really want to go out and eat that chocolate ice-cream (概括对方的论据);

3. If you had all of your homework done, you could go and play as much as you want (承认对方观点合理性);

4. At this moment, I need you to finish your homework. When you are done, you can have some ice-cream. (阐述你的立场);

5. I’ll fill in a bowl with ice-cream and put it in the fridge for you, so you can eat it as soon as you finish. (描述你观点的情景);

6. When you finish your homework, you can go out until bedtime, and you will have good grades in school. (对方能够受到的益处)

第三种:TOULMIN ARGUMENT

这种argumentative essay模型最适合学术写作,也不算简单。英国哲学家Stephen Toulmin提出的论辩框架如下:

1)论点:就像我们平时写的主旨句,是我们的观点和立场;

2)论据:统计数据、常识和经验观察等被用于支持主张;

3)保证:可视为一种理论上的规则,确保论据能够使主张成立;

4)保证补强成分:是论点推理规则的补强成分和附加成分;

5)限定:限定主张成立的条件;

6)例外:指出反例。

1. Lucia, I know that last time you took a shower on Monday. It’s Thursday now (论据);

2. You need to take a shower. (论点);

3. You are starting to get stinky. Your hair is looking very messy. (保证);

4. Birds will build a nest in your hair if it isn’t clean and brushed. You also will get known as a stinky girl at school. (保证补强成分);

5. I know that Dad always says that you smell like cinnamon and sugar, but you are getting a little ripe. (限定);

6. You are doing great in school and you behave, but you still have to take a shower.

(例外).

如何选择Argumentative Essay题目?

如何选择Argumentative Essay题目?

你的议论文题目需要是debatable,以便你可以找到它的论点和反论点。 比如说,“People needs air to breathe;” 的话题并没有什么值得辩论的,但“Students don’t need homework to succeed”可能会奏效。

此外,论文题目应具有说服力,具备有力的证据和至少两种对立的观点,并这种应用有说服力的语言撰写论文,以便读者能看到问题两个方面,并采纳他们最喜欢的立场。

最好选择你感兴趣的主题。 调整你的论点并列出你将用支持论据的要点。 另外,你还需要列出你论点的反驳观点,并为其收集证据。 在你的论文中,两个不同方面都要描述,但要尝试证明你的论点是唯一正确的。

DEBATABLE

你的任务不仅是提供有关某件事情的一般信息,而且要激励读者继续对此主题进行讨论。你需要找到一个能够扩大人们视野并允许他们以新的视角看待它的主题。辩Argumentative essay是关于覆盖硬币(主题)的两个侧面。例如:

错: George Clooney is the most handsome actor. (有人会不同意时,你几乎找不到足够可信的证据来证明或反对这一事实.)

Rare animals are in danger today. (这是事实,这里没有什么可以辩论的)

正: People need marijuana for better health. (你可以找到该主题的论点和反论点.)

Positive features of communism.

Why Equal Rights Amendments for women failed.

主要目的并不是说服读者支持你的论点(though it would be great!), 而是要表明该主题是值得讨论的。

选择DEBATABLE议论文题目的窍门:

1. 选择你了解并可以对其表达自己意见的主题。

2. 避免难以辩论的话题。

3. 考虑到你的读者. 谁能读你的论文?他们会如何看待这个话题?

4. 他们对讨论该主题会感兴趣吗?

5. 确保你有足够的事实和证据来支持该主题的论点和反论点。

6. 避免使用充满感情色彩的主题。 清晰地讨论它们可能很困难。

7. 不怕冒险。尝试讨论其他人会避免的争议性主题。

8. 头脑风暴你的环境。你最近遇到了其他人认为忌讳的话题吗?你是否有与任何人讨论过任何争议性的话题? 为什么不可以在论文中涵盖这些主题?

Argumentative Essay题目参考

Argumentative Essay题目参考

为了使argumentative essay成功,其主题必须是辩论性的,而不是说明性的。 这意味着你不应选择任何常识或过于笼统的论点。 考虑一下政治,性别问题,气候变化,教育辩论,文化,动物权利或宗教等领域。

教育

What educational system is better: teacher- or student-centered one?

Pros and cons of classical education in schools

Do we need sports activities in college or let it be for academic purposes only?

How does gender affect education?

Does homeschooling make children less educative than their peers from traditional schools?

Why U.S. education is weaker than in other countries’

Should students be friends with their professors?

Why students with special needs shouldn’t be taught separately

技术

Why we still need paper books in the Internet era

How online money change the way people do business worldwide

The influence of artificial intelligence creation on evolution

Do technologies destroy our language and physical communication?

Can we live without smartphones today?

How social media networks become news makers and what the consequences might be

Should parents control their kids’ use of the Internet?

Is there a risk that robots at work will lead to the enormous jobless rate

体育

Do elite sportsmen deserve their enormous income?

Why colleges spend so much money on sports programs

Do sports have any effect on students’ academic level?

Why we continue shaming cheerleaders for what they do

Should sports bets be banned from the industry?

What to do with a salary gap in male and female sports

Chess is a real sport to train the most important muscle in the human body

Why we need to stop using animals in sports

性别问题

The biggest challenges for women in the workplace

Why should men suffer from others’ prejudices about masculinity

Is legal prostitution a woman’s rights issue?

Why religious institutions believe they have a right for birth control

What is the biggest challenge for female politicians?

Should abortion be legal?

Why we still consider it’s not okay for men to take maternity leave

Who said that “a real man” and “a real woman” look like this?

心理

How emotional state depends on our past memories

Should we believe in precognitive dreams?

Is mid-life crisis real?

Why “just do it” mantra doesn’t work

How culturally diverse classrooms help broaden our minds

Why music can be the best medicine from stresses

That’s how optimism can prevent us from self-growth

Chocolate as a cure from depression: true or false?

动物

Why stop dressing your pets like humans

Is it ethical to keep exotic animals at home?

Should we prohibit using animals for entertainment?

Why keeping animals in zoos is inhumane

What can be an alternative to using animals for medical studies?

What’s so special about pandas, so people consider them #1 species to protect?

Should be people who leave their pets outside or in shelters punished?

Why some fashion brands continue using fur and see nothing wrong with that

健康

What’s wrong with the idea of free healthcare for everyone

When it’s okay to perform medical experiments on people

What can we do to cope with constantly increasing aging population

Should the whole healthcare system become private?

Is it ethical to forcibly quarantine people who have terminal illnesses?

How the social and economic environment affect people’s health in the 21st century

Can we call coffee or chocolate addictions a disease?

Is it okay to use medical knowledge that was gained from unethical experiments?

道德问题 (ethics)

Should we legalize prostitution/drug use?

Is it okay to lie to someone to not hurt their feelings?

Is it right for a college to have racial quotas that benefit minorities?

Why far from all people agree to recognize homosexuality a norm

Can we make reference to religion when speaking about women’s rights and freedoms?

Should a person be allowed a gun for defending his home from robbers?

Why it’s okay to eat cows while it’s wrong to eat cats

Is it ethical for a doctor to say no to a patient unable to pay for surgery?

When fast food can be considered healthy

What was first, a chicken or an egg?

Do we live better than our grandparents?

Why nothing can substitute money as a way to control exchange relations

Should we say no to fixed schedules in school and at work?

Is legalization of weed really beneficial to the economy?

Why emotional intelligence is more important today to have

Should a person know the exact date of his depart?

无论你选择哪种议论文结构或你的议论文题目是什么, argumentative essay的目的反正应该通过摆事实、讲道理、辨是非提出你个人主张。如果觉得你还不确定 argumentative essay怎么写或觉得关于其的知识还是有一些空白点,欢迎选择我们为您提供Argumentative Essay代写服务,原创保证,通过保障,欢迎扫描右侧二维码联系网站客服。

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