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Essay代写范文-卵磷脂和记忆改善

发布时间:2022-06-15 16:17:05 阅读:62

案例简介

  • 作者:博远教育
  • 导读:本文是一篇Essay代写范文,本文分析了卵磷脂补充剂据称的记忆增强功能,并将其与卵磷脂的三项实证研究进行了比较。卵磷脂是一种含磷的磷脂酰胆碱,由法国科学家Gobley于1846-1847年首次从蛋黄和大脑中发现。
  • 字数:1965 字
  • 预计阅读时间:5分钟

案例详情

本文是一篇Essay代写范文,题目为:Lecithin and Memory Improvements,本文分析了卵磷脂补充剂据称的记忆增强功能,并将其与卵磷脂的三项实证研究进行了比较。

卵磷脂

Lecithin is a phosphorus-containing phosphatidylcholine found first by French scientist Gobley from the egg yolk and brains in 1846-1847. Generalized lecithin refers to a general term for various phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine PC, phosphatidylethanolamine PE, phosphatidylinositol PI, etc. The narrowly defined lecithin refers to phosphatidylcholine PC. The narrow group of phosphatidylcholine PC also has many molecular types, and studies have been carried out to separate and identify PCs of different molecular types (Latifi, et al., 2016). Lecithin has important nutritional and health functions. It is an important component of biofilms and can delay aging. Phosphatidylcholine PC is an amphiphilic substance, the polar part is choline, and the non-polar part is omega-3 fatty acid. Thus, it regulates the cholesterol metabolism and prevents cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. Lecithin has many sources, such as egg yolk, animal brains, marine life, soybeans, rapeseed and so on. Commercial lecithin is currently mainly derived from vegetable oilseeds, such as soybeans and sunflower seeds. This essay analyzes the purported memory enhancement functions of the Lecithin supplements, and compares them with three empirical studies of Lecithin.

卵磷脂是一种含磷的磷脂酰胆碱,由法国科学家Gobley于1846-1847年首次从蛋黄和大脑中发现。广义卵磷脂是指各种磷脂的总称,包括磷脂酰胆碱PC、磷脂酰乙醇胺PE、磷脂酰肌醇PI等。狭义的卵磷脂指磷脂酰胆碱PC。磷脂酰胆碱PC的狭义基团也有许多分子类型,已经开展了分离和鉴定不同分子类型PC的研究(Latifi等,2016)。卵磷脂具有重要的营养和保健功能。它是生物膜的重要组成部分,可以延缓衰老。磷脂酰胆碱PC是一种两亲性物质,极性部分为胆碱,非极性部分为ω-3脂肪酸。因此,它可以调节胆固醇代谢,预防心脑血管疾病。卵磷脂有很多来源,如蛋黄、动物脑、海洋生物、大豆、油菜籽等。商业卵磷脂目前主要来自植物油籽,如大豆和葵花籽。本文分析了卵磷脂补充剂据称的记忆增强功能,并将其与卵磷脂的三项实证研究进行了比较。

The current Lecithin supplements on the market focus on different functionalities. One of the products that features the memory enhancement capabilities is the Athelas Neutraceuticals Lecithin from Athelas Neutraceuticals. They exact Lecithin from soy beans (Tzemis, 2018). In the description, the benefits of the product are described as: “decrease cholesterol and protect your heart, protect your brain from cognitive decline, heal liver damage, and possibly even improve your cognitive function beyond its baseline level” (Tzemis, 2018). The word “cognitive decline” indicate that the supplement may be more helpful for the elderly people. The term is rather non-specific and can include immediate memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. The introduction of the supplement further describes that Lecithin is beneficial for problems such as early-stage dementia and memory problems. It also references a study conducted to test the effectiveness of the soy-bean lecithin. Overall, improvement in memory recognition, memory recalling, and executive functions are the major marketing points of the supplement.

In the study conducted by Latifi et al., (2016), the effects of Lecithin on cortical neurons are examined. The researchers prepared F22 Lecithin that was obtained from salmons. The F22 Lecithin derived by the team was rich in 15 fatty acids. This was an attempt to imitate the composition of the brain membrane. The assessment was conducted on the neuronal cultures that was designed to study the different activity levels due to the presence and absence of the F22 Lecithin. The neuronal cultures were prepared from cortices dissected from E18.5 embryos in ice-cold PBS. A series of assessments were carried out between the F22 Lecithin treated group and the control group. These assessments include Fatty acids composition assessment, Liposome size measurement by dynamic light scattering, Electrophoretic mobility, Nanoparticle tracking analysis, Analysis of incoherent polarized steady light transport, Transmission electron microscopy, and Atomic force microscopy imaging (AFM).

Based on the comparison between the control group and the F22-treated group, the experimental group has shown positive effects on the stimulation of neuronal cell growth, the formation of neuronal networks, and the level of activity in the Lecithin-treated culture. Comparing the number of neuronal crossings in the control group and the experimental group, it has been found that the experimental group has over twice the number of crossings in the cultures. The network densities of the two are also drastically differnet, with the F22 group roughly three times of the control group. The F22 Lecithin used contain multiple fatty acids. Since the formation, growth, complexity, and activity of the neuronal cells are of critical importance to all types of memory, this study has demonstrated that Lecithin supplements with different PUFA types will effectively help alleviate memory-associated problems.

The experiment of Lee et al. (2016) examines the effectiveness of the lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine (PS) extracted from squid, which is abbreviated as SQ-PS. The experimental subjects are adult male rats that are suffering from age-related learning capabilities and memory loss. Two age groups of rats, one six-week old, the other 15-month old, were used. The rats were then randomly divided into six groups. The SQ-PS treated rats were subdivided into three different dosage levels, which were 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg. In addition, there was also a group of rat that was treated with Soy-PS, to demonstrate the different effectiveness based on the origin of the Lecithin. In order to test the learning capabilities and memory of the rats, all the groups received the Hidden platform trial for acquisition test. The rats were to remember the location of a hidden platform and stay on it for at least 4 seconds before being rescued to a dry location with warmth.

By comparing the performance of different groups, it has been found that the memory loss in the rat brain is closely related to the aging of the cholinergic neurons. Rats that have taken the SQ-PS supplementation orally has demonstrated significantly better performance in remembering the location of the hidden platform and successfully being rescued by the experimenter. Their learning ability and memory is also dependent on the dosage of the SQ-PS intake. Meanwhile, a comparison between the SQ-PS and the Soy-PS show that the latter is not as effective as the former in passing through the Caco-2 cell barrier in the brain. However, SQ-PS has shown significant capabilities in restoring the functionality and activity of the cholinergic neurons. Therefore, it can be concluded that supplements that contain SQ-PS are contributive to the brain activity and will help alleviate the conditions of short-term memory loss caused by aging.

In the study by Moré, Freitas, and Rutenberg, (2014), the researchers test the effectiveness of the supplement with a mixture of PS and PA that were obtained from soy Lecithin. The research subjects were volunteers from the rural collective communities in Israel. The volunteers ranged from 60s to 80 years of age. Participants were asked to take three capsules of supplement every day for three months, containing 300mg of PS and 240mg of PA in the daily dosage. A placebo controlled study was conducted among the volunteers to test the effectiveness of the PS-PA supplement. The Wechsler Memory Scale was measured for the volunteers, which tested their learning capabilities, information gathering, short-term memory, etc. Meanwhile, the mood of the volunteers was also measured using the LDS test. A statistical analysis was then carried out to visualize the effectiveness of the Lecithin supplements.

Comparing the test group with the placebo group, it has been found that deterioration in learning and memory abilities among the PS-PA group was measured to be only 3.8%, compared to the 17.9% of the placebo group. In addition, stability of daily functioning also improved significantly for the PS-PA group, with 90.6% of stability compared to the 79.5% stability for the placebo group. Among the AD patients who received PS-PA dosages, 49% reported an improvement in the general condition, while the number for the placebo group was only 26.3%. Meanwhile, the serum analysis show that PS-PA was effectively absorbed by the test group volunteers. Researchers thus conclude that the PS-PA combination has a positive influence on memory, mood, and cognition among the elderly people, especially through suffering from AD.

In conclusion, all of the three scientific studies demonstrate the effectiveness of Lecithin in improving memory and learning capabilities. These studies prove the effectiveness from the cellular, animal, and human perspectives respectively. However, it should be noted that these experiments were using Lecithin supplements from different sources. The first two experiments used Lecithin extracted from marine life, and the third was from soy beans. The different effectiveness of the squid Lecithin and soy Lecithin has been proven by Lee et al. Overall, the effectiveness of the Lecithin supplements for short-term memory improvement for the elderly people is proved. However, before buying the products, it should be noted that the source of Lecithin is also critical for its effectiveness. Preference should be given for Lecithin content extracted from marine life, such as salmon and squid.

总之,三项科学研究都证明了卵磷脂在改善记忆和学习能力方面的有效性。这些研究分别从细胞、动物和人类的角度证明了该方法的有效性。然而,应该注意的是,这些实验使用的是来自不同来源的卵磷脂补充剂。前两个实验使用从海洋生物中提取的卵磷脂,第三个是从大豆中提取的卵磷脂。Lee等人证明了鱿鱼卵磷脂和大豆卵磷脂的不同功效。总的来说,卵磷脂补充剂对改善老年人短期记忆的效果得到了证明。然而,在购买产品之前,应注意卵磷脂的来源对其有效性也至关重要。应优先考虑从海洋生物(如鲑鱼和鱿鱼)中提取的卵磷脂含量。

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