当前位置:首页>案例中心> Coursework代写案例>Coursework代写范文-政府政策在传媒中的作用

Coursework代写范文-政府政策在传媒中的作用

发布时间:2020-07-04 10:38:31 阅读:230

案例简介

  • 作者:致远教育
  • 导读:本文是一篇优秀的Coursework代写范文,主要讨论了政府政策在传媒业变革中的作用。随着社会的发展,媒体已成为公众了解世界政治形象的重要渠道,这已成为西方国家政府牢牢控制的目标。
  • 字数:3654 字
  • 预计阅读时间:12分钟

案例详情

本文是一篇优秀的Coursework代写范文,题目为The role of government policy in changing the media industry,主要讨论了政府政策在传媒业变革中的作用。随着社会的发展,媒体已成为公众了解世界政治形象的重要渠道,这已成为西方国家政府牢牢控制的目标。

政府政策在传媒业变革中的作用

The role of government policy in changing the media industry

政府政策在传媒业变革中的作用

Introduction引言

With the development of the society, the media has become an important channel for public perception of the world’s political picture, which has become a target that is firmly controlled by the government of the western countries. The government of the United Kingdom has never abandoned the attempt to interfere with the media and continue the practice of manipulating the media. The media in the UK has to make adjustments according to the government policies.

随着社会的发展,媒体已经成为公众感知世界政治图景的重要渠道,成为西方国家政府牢牢控制的对象。联合王国政府从未放弃干涉媒体的企图,继续操纵媒体的做法。英国媒体必须根据政府的政策进行调整。

In the United States, when people turn on the TV every day, they will find that news programs are overwhelming. Different channels and TV programs will be placed in front of the audience with a news event with different angles to analyze and comment. It seems that the news is true and fresh, but it also has been filtered by the power of the government.

在美国,当人们每天打开电视,他们会发现新闻节目是压倒性的。不同的频道和电视节目都会以不同角度的新闻事件呈现在观众面前进行分析和评论。看来这消息是真的、新鲜的,但也被政府的权力过滤掉了。

The essay aims to assess the role that government policy has played in the changes of the media industry and three factors will be full discussed. The first part discusses the role of the public relations in the media. The second part analyzes the media marketization. The third part explores the changes of information publication in the media industry. The fourth part is a conclusion of the whole essay.

本文旨在评估政府政策在传媒业变迁中所扮演的角色,并对三个因素进行充分探讨。第一部分论述了公共关系在媒体中的作用。第二部分分析了媒介市场化。第三部分探讨传媒业信息出版的变迁。第四部分是对全文的总结。

Emergency of Public Relations

Public relations refer to the methodology that an organization is presented in front of the public and clarifies its goals, objectives and official opinions in the related affairs.  Ultimately, it encourages the public to understand the organization in the emotional and intellectual level, so that the public completely accept the view. (Botan and Maureen, 2004)

Public relations began in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century and began in the UK in the twenties of the 20th century. For a long time, public relations experienced slow development. Until the late 1970s of the 20th century, the Thatcher government as a symbol had made public relations rise, and gradually developed into an important emerging industry in Britain. (He, 2011) A large number of public relation agencies with specific performance and various professionals have been established. The majority of the industry organizations like governments, companies and charities all devote to the establishment of their own public relations departments and the number of public relations personnel is doubled. By the middle of the 90's, public relations practitioners in the private and public sectors of the UK, including the central and local governments, had been around 25 thousand. (He, 2011)

The rise and development of public relations is mainly due to two aspects. On the one hand, the constant technology updates have provided technical support to the development of the media. On the other hand, under the background of globalization and a combination of uncertainties, various stakeholders need to deal with the increasing social competition and they all want to use public relations to influence the media, to make their own voice and eventually get their own interests. As Tom Beth Tor said, "all the people, from the prime minister to recent rock star, more regardless of large enterprises, each want to sell something, whether it is thought, personal image, or consumer goods and services". Today, public relations in the British society occupy a pivotal position, which is regarded as the "fifth grade", after the administrative, legislative, judicial, and media aspects. The United Kingdom is a genuine country with public relations. (Goodwin, 1995)

The introduction of public relations is the most obvious characteristic of British politics in the last thirty years and is also a new trend in the competition of the British political parties. In the 1990s, the Labor Party absorbed the failure of the previous campaign ignoring public relations and learned the lessons of lost to the conservative party. It established a strong public relations team and masterminded the success of chalking up to the media for the orientation of political marketing, which fully demonstrated Blair’s perfect personal image and finally won votes to end the eighteen-years ruling history of the conservative party. Worthy of note is that the power and public relations alliance in British politics has prevailed for a long time, which can be reflected in two aspects. (He, 2011)

On the one hand, the government makes the mass media more political. In order to be able to convey the relevant policy information to the public, the British government has set up a number of information institutions like the central information office. However, in accordance with the original intention of the establishment of these information institutions, they must strictly take a neutral position to pass information to the public. The requirement of the government information service is very clear that the media should convey timely, accurate and objective information about the activities of the government and the government’s policies. The media should not try to propaganda the government and persuade the people, which is clearly not working. (He, 2011) And in accordance with the provisions of Buckingham Palace Redbook, a press officer for the agency must determine the position relationship with media and take this opportunity to let people think about the government and understand the current government policy.

But since the beginning of the Thatcher era, the central information office and government information service institutions have gone through the political transformation, destroying its own neutrality and becoming a propaganda tool to promote the government’s ideology. In the era of Blair, the political transformation of government is increasing. Blair clearly defined the media agency's advocacy role. For example, in 1997, the central task is to promote the government’s key policies in various fields as far as possible. This transformation that has destroyed the political impartiality is finished mainly through special advisers in institutions to realize the task of great communication. (Tracey and Herzog, 2014)

These special advisers only listen to the requirements of the government and no long perform impartially, which has reshaped the relationship between the government and the media. It is very difficult for the media is very to receive real information through the information service institutions of the government. More importantly, some impartial government officials have also changed their position and become partial in order to gain a proper situation in the government institutions. Therefore, the government policy has made the media doubt the authenticity of the government’s information.

On the other hand, the government provides a large number of “information subsidies” to the media, which is an initiative type manipulation on the media by means of public relations The so-called "information subsidies" refers to subsidies to the information with high cost, value and potential function. (Curtin, 1999) The content of information subsidies involves news conference, press conference, government reports and official statements and family life of leaders, which are always planned by the public relations experts of the government. The essence of information subsidies is to impose influence on an attempt and achieve by controlling public access and usage of information related to their actions. (Curtin, 1999)

In the United Kingdom with the increasingly public relations, such information subsidies have become the government's important means of malicious manipulation of the media. The reason why the subsidies can control the media, mainly because the content of information subsidies is often not changed and the reporters have completely turned the information into news, which effectively manipulates the mass media.

The reason why the British government focuses on the public relations is because the method of promoting the government has become more important than ever in a society of medium and in the era of a national election. The subtle details will be amplified by the media, and then directly affect the public's impression and views, resulting in their decision of support or opposition, which ultimately affects their political future. So regardless of whether ruling or not, all parties constantly consider how to create a better image and define a better situation in order to bring the most favorable political advantage and ultimately to obtain public support. In the United Kingdom, the special role of the media tends to increase rulers’ governing difficulty. It has become an important issue to make the media’s topics and views in accordance with the orientation of the government. Public relations have become an important tool which is being learned by the governments all over the world.

In a nutshell, the government has implemented policy on the establishment of government new agencies and formulated the strategy of public relations, which has brought difficulties for the mass media to get authentic information from the government, which has brought sever changes in the mass media industry. The news is not long open to the media and there are barriers between the media the government.

Media Marketization

In the United Kingdom, the media has been greatly affected by the public relations of the government. The media greatly relies on the information subsidies and less doubts the authenticity of the information from the government’s agencies. The media marketization has become a global trend and the media has to survive and compete in the market environment. (Zhu and Zhang, 2002)

On the one hand, with external pressure, the media has surrendered to the market. Despite a long period of time, the British public service media has maintained a distance from the market. But with the new liberal policies of the Thatcher administration, the public service media has been pushed to the market. (Tracey and Herzog, 2014) However, the market is not wonderful as advocated by the government, which can bring maximum freedom to the media. On the contrary, for once glorious public service media, it has obtained a pair of the economic shackles that never seem to get rid of. The free market itself is a control system, rather than the free engine. So, although the British media until today still promotes its implementation of the so-called mixed system coexisted with public and commerce, all the media seem to be far pressed by the market.

For audio rate and circulation, they have resorted to every means to seek survival in the market. One of the most prominent performances is that the major media have expanded layout and columns in order to enhance the competitiveness. In order to fill the layout and columns, the entertainment content has been increased by a large margin and the news has become the target of competing media. In television, for example, a lot of morning news in the 1980s in the 20th century have emerged and become beautiful scenery on British television. Sky TV, BBC and CNN has become three pillars in the media industry in the United Kingdom. (Shaver, 2001) It is worth noting that, in the continuous expansion of the layout and columns at the same time, more and more media companies like BBC which has been declared to maintain a distance of the market have to lay off staff to save costs. (Shaver, 2001)

One side is the increasing number of pages and columns and the other side is a constant reduction of the news reporters. This strategy indeed greatly enhances the competitiveness of the mass media in the market, but also multiplies the survival pressure on the staff. Now, for journalists, the media seem to suffer from hunger. In order to fill the column and layout in the specified time, the reporters have to abandon laborious investigative reports which can benefit the society but it is extremely time-consuming and instead begins to pursue packaged fast food news. There is even no exception for "Sunday Times", which has always been known for its depth investigation reports. Because the market pressure is too large and in 2005 it was forced to disband investigative reporting team of “Insight”, while the team has been enjoying a high reputation in the British press. (The Guardian, 2006)

In the face of severe market competition, the general reporters have no time to explore the government's every move to question the supervision, but the government is in urgent need to provide news materials to the reports to solve their work pressure. The government is using this market pressure, through a large number of public relations personnel to provide information subsidies, in order to achieve the purpose of controlling the media. Today, the number of public relations staff has surpassed the number of reporters. Facing the government to provide such a mass of information subsidies, the reporters have no time to distinguish authenticity due to reporting pressure. The result is media is full of churnalism, which means the media is full of distorted message. (Jackson and Moloney, 2015)

On the other hand, the media is driven by the inherent weakness of professionalism. Western journalism has always stressed its objectiveness and fairness, because it reflects the professional spirit that the news reporters can get the public recognition. In order to reflects the objectiveness and impartiality of reports, the most common approach of news reporters is a clear distinction between facts and opinions, and stand in the third stand on both sides of the event to balance the reports as far as possible, especially to the maximize the most authoritative source of information in order to enhance the credibility of reporting. But in the whole society with a big bureaucratic hierarchy, it often closely relates the social status with the authority of the information sources. And in general, high-ranking authorities are often considered more authoritative compared to ordinary people. The reason lies in the power and status of their organizations. For journalists, it means that they must choose the high-ranking authorities in order to obtain authoritative news, no matter the news is true or false.

The objectiveness requires the journalist to use most valid information sources. It happens that the most right source of validity, clarity, convenience, and apparent authority is usually a spokesman or decision maker of the government authority. Therefore, it is not surprising that journalists often use a large number of politicians and public officials as a news source, not only because these resources are more convenient, but also the whole population in the society believes that they are more authoritative.

From this point of view, it is an objective and impartial blindly emphasis on the news that increases the media’s excessive dependence on the trust level of the top power group, and often they are positioned on the news event, while ignoring the underlying sound should be most concerned about. It is precisely those rules to protect the media justice that leads the media to reliable sources.

Ironically, the power groups often interpret the defense into the voice of the people. In order to obtain the support from the public, the government authorities and institutions tend to make use of the psychological need of the mass media to provide fake or wrong information. The government doesn’t allow the officials to reveal the true information to the public with political power. When the wrong information is identified by the mass media and the mass media choose to fight against with the government, the government officials will carry out the direct information subsidies to solve the problem and ease the tension. Ultimately, reports have no choice but to surrender to the current situation. Otherwise, the media cannot get information from the government, which will lead to the insufficient news to the mass media industry.

Due to the public relation policy of the government, the mass media has to face the fierce competition in the market and reports have no choice but to fully accept the news from the government. Meanwhile, the mass media has to serve for the government to promote the image of the authorities. As a result, the mass media has become a tool of the government to build the image for the public and provides news to the public to make them believe in the governance of the current leaders.

Publications of Information

The government policy also makes changes in the publications of information in the media industry. The government often restricts the media to public certain information, especially related to the government.

The information received from the media in the United States is the product after four filters. First of all, in the United States, media companies are private, which makes the news media is influenced by the company's economic interests and the broadcast information must be beneficial to the company's economic interests. Secondly, the media industry relies on advertising as an important source of income, so the content of the media must be the consumer-oriented dissemination of advertising. If the consumers are not interested in the information broadcast by the media, the media will not be possible to win any advertising. Thirdly, in order to obtain information, the media has to maintain a good cooperative relationship with the source of the information. While the source itself is relatively limited, the giant media group is also very difficult to hire reporters in every corner of the world waiting for the occurrence of the news. They must focus on relatively centralized sources of information, including the government. Fourthly, the media is fear of evil comment. If the published information damages certain interest groups, relevant people only need to discredit the media that can achieve the result of economy damage to the media.

Conclusion

After discussing three factors in the United Kingdom and the United States, consequences of the government policy are mainly reflected in three aspects. First and foremost, the government policy has made the government information not open to the public and the mass media. The government has established relevant authorities to handle the public relations with the media. Secondly, the government policy of information subsidies, public relations and authorities has made the media rely on the release of the government and the government also makes use of the media as a tool for its own propaganda. Thirdly, with the government policy of interference in the publication of information, the media’s information has to be filtered in advance, which has made the media restricted by the government. In a conclusion, the government has played an important role in the changes and reforms in the media industry. 

References

Botan, C.H. and Maureen, T. (2004), Public Relations: State of the Field, Journal of Communication, 54(54):645-661.

He, P.C. (2011), The British Labour Party Media Strategy Research (1994-2007), Central Party School of the CPC.

Curtin, P. A. (1999), Reevaluating Public Relations Information Subsidies: Market-Driven Journalism and Agenda-Building Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Relations Research, 1999, 11(1):53-90.

Goodwin, P. (1995), British media policy takes to the superhighway, Media, Culture & Society. Vol. 17 677-689.

Freedman, Des, (2008), Pluralism, neo-liberalism and media policy, The politics of media policy pp.24-53, Cambridge: Polity.

Garnham, N, (1998), Policy, The Media: An Introduction pp.210-223, Harlow: Longman

Grant, Peter S., (2004), Chapter One, Blockbusters and trade wars: popular culture in a globalized world pp.13-24, Vancouver: Douglas and MacIntyre.

Zhu, JP. and Zhang, LF. (2002), Modern Technology & Its International Marketization Media, Journal of Xiangfan University.

Shaver, D. (2001), Inside the BBC and CNN: Managing Media Organizations, Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 56.

The Guardian. (2006), Insight cull 'saved Sunday Times £300,000', Website.

Jackson, D. and Moloney, K. (2015), Inside Churnalism, Journalism Studies 1-18.

Tracey, M. and Herzog, C. (2014), Thatcher, Thatcherism and British Broadcasting Policy, Social Science Electronic Publishing.

以上就是coursework代写范文全部内容,内容和格式仅供参考学习,不得抄袭,欢迎有需要coursework代写的同学们选择我们致远教育,竭诚为大家提供卓越代写服务,通过保障,原创保证。