一篇argument essay写作要包括5个要素：claim, evidence, reasoning, counterargument以及audience.
Claim指整篇文章的观点（A claim is an idea, opinion, or position on an issue. Your claim is what you want others to understand or accept.）
Evidence帮助你去证明整篇文章的观点。（Evidence helps prove your claim in a way readers will believe）.
Reasoning是叙事说理过程，把claim和evidence联系在一起。（Reasoning tells readers why you made your claim, and it connects evidence back to the claim.）
Counterargument，以退为进，在文章中写出和本文主论点相反的论点，然后论证它并不合理／不适用，进而加强文章主论点。（Counterarguments are alternative or opposing ideas or claims that other people have made about the topic. Counterarguments give life to arguments, and when we address them effectively, they make our claim stronger.）
Audience，任何一篇文章都有特定的受众人群，为了说服你的受众接受你的观点，就必须选择合适的语句和语气。（Audience: to persuade your audience to accept your claim, choose words that appeal to them. Some words turn an audience off. They stop listening. If your audience finds your evidence, reasoning, and word choice appealing, your argument will be effective.）