Essay正文部分如何写得出彩?

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essay body paragraph - Essay正文部分如何写得出彩?

中国学子到海外留学期间,写essay可以说是家常便饭了,也是我们留学生完成留学学业的最大的困扰之一。为了帮助留学生小伙伴们更好的完成essay,baydue论文网不断为大家更新essay写作技巧文章,旨在提供一些技巧与方法,帮助大家克服不知道essay怎么写这一难关。前面的文章《高分充电站|如何写好Essay开头部分?》我们给大家说了essay开头部分怎么写,今天就来给大家说说正文(Body)部分怎么写,后续我们还会为大家奉上结论(Conclusion)部分的写作方法,请大家持续关注BayDue论文网。

今天我们来详细说说正文部分(Body)怎么写。

正文部分的主要作用是阐述文章的中心思想(main idea),或者主题(thesis),一般是文章中最长的一部分,也是最重要的一部分。正文通常分为好几段,每段称为一个body paragraph。

《大学写作技巧:主题阐述及其他》(Techniques for College Writing: The Thesis Statement and Beyond)一书中建议,每个body paragraph由一个TAXES式的结构组成,这种结构能让你始终围绕主题(thesis)来写作。

  • Topic Sentence:主题句(一句话阐明本段的论点)
  • Assertion statements:主张句(几句话阐述你的论点)
  • eXample(s):举例(列举一些事实)
  • Explanation:解释(说明以上事实为什么能支撑你的论点)
  • Significance:意义(总结说明为什么本段论点能论证全文的主题)

也可以更简单地分为三个部分,在美国这被称为“汉堡包结构”:

  • Topic Sentence:主题句
  • Supporting Evidence:证据
  • Conclusion Sentence:总结句

下面,我们挑重点来一一分析。

Essay主题句的写作要点

首先,注意主题句应该是一个观点,而不是事实。比如:

  • ✖ 事实:Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one’s own.
  • ✔ 观点:People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.

其次,主题句应该是一个观点,而不能仅仅包含一个话题。比如:

  • ✖ 只包含话题:Today I’m going to discuss the benefits of gardening.
  • ✔ 包含观点:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.

最后,你的观点不能是泛泛的,而应该是确切的。

  • ✖ 模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.
  • ✔ 确切:Sherman’s destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.

Essay Body如何引述证据

在列举证据时,首先我们应当保证所有的论据都是与主题相关的。证据可能包括以下类型:

  • 事实(Facts)
  • 公开发表的观点(Published opinions)
  • 书刊网站等媒体上的调查研究(Research from books, journal articles, websites, etc.)
  • 公开的案例(Published case studies)
  • 研究数据(Research data)

引用证据有三种方法:

  • 引用(Quoting):逐字逐句地复制原信息
  • 复述(Paraphrasing):按自己的语言重新组织
  • 概括(Summarising):更简洁的语言概括原信息

但无论采用哪种方法,我们都需要注意:一、让证据自然地穿插在文中;二、注明来源。

比如使用这样的表达:

Further insight into income inequality is provided by Dr. Delaney, an economist at Stanford, who is of the opinion that…

Essay Body写作过渡的重要性

无论是句与句之间,还是段落与段落之间,都需要过渡。过渡能让文章连贯统一,没有过渡的文章就仅仅是一些句子随机地组合在一起。下面我们通过一个例子来感受下。

我们先看一个没有过渡的段落:

Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions. Transitions allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay. Using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements allow a writer to connect one sentence to the next. The use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy. Many students fail to use effective transitions, and the essay comes across as disconnected. Writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together.

加上过渡之后的版本:

Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions. It is the use of these transitions that allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay. For example, by using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements, a writer can easily connect one sentence to the next. Moreover, the use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy. Unfortunately, students often fail to use effective transitions, and, as a result, the essay comes across as disconnected. To avoid this, writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together, and they should strive to find creative ways to do so.

可以看出,加上了这些过渡词之后,整段文章变得连贯了许多。我们可以在写作完成之后,再通读一遍,在不够连贯的地方加上过渡。

以下是BayDue论文网小编给大家整理的一些常用的过渡词,正在为如何写essay发愁的同学们可以mark一下!

① 递增(To Add)

additionally, in addition, again, besides, moreover, what’s more, equally important (also important), finally, further, furthermore, first (second, third, etc.) next, lastly

② 重复(To Repeat)

as mentioned, as has been noted

③ 转折(To Show Exception)

however, but, nevertheless, in spite of, yet, still, despite, of course, once in a while, sometimes, unfortunately

④ 比较(To Compare)

however, on the other hand, on the contrary, in contrast, whereas, yet, nevertheless, by comparison, compared to, conversely, up against, balanced against, although, meanwhile, after all, while this may be true

⑤ 强调(To Emphasize)

indeed, certainly, in any case, without a doubt, obviously, definitely, extremely, in fact, absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly, emphatically, unquestionably, undeniably, without reservation, always, never

⑥ 证明(To Prove)

in fact, indeed, because, for, since, for the same reason, for this reason, obviously, evidently, besides, in addition, in any case

⑦ 举例(To Give an Example)

for example, for instance, to demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration, in another case, take the case of, on this occasion, in this situation

⑧ 排序(To Show Sequence)

as a result, subsequently, consequently, concurrently, following this, now, at this point, afterward, simultaneously, first (second, third, etc.)

⑨ 总结(To Summarize or Conclude)

In conclusion, as demonstrated, to conclude, summing up, in brief, as a result, therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence, on the whole

最后,我们通过一个例子看下body paragraph的具体写法。

# 第1句:主题句——阐述与本文主题相关的论点:

Students who learn how to write well will earn better grades in most classes.

# 第2句:主张句——对主题句进行进一步阐述:

This is true because most instructors assign a variety of written assignments, and depending on the class, these written assignments often encompass a large percentage of a student’s final grade.

# 第3句:举例一

For instance, all college students seeking a degree will be required to take a composition class. In this class alone, students will write five different essays.

# 第4句:举例二

Furthermore, other classes, such as history, psychology, nursing, etc., also require students to write multiple essays.

# 第5句:给出更具体的信息(此处可以引述权威人士):

According to John Doe, a Professor of English at Aims Community College, the average undergraduate student will write twenty-five different essays while seeking a bachelor’s degree. This number increases dramatically for students who go on to seek a graduate degree(s).

# 第6句:总结

Because all students, regardless of major, will be required to compose a large number of essays, it is important that they learn how to write well.

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1 评论

  1. Casper说道:

    学习了!正愁感恩节假期三篇essay怎么写呢!

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