Thesis / 怎么得老师欢心？如何不踩雷区？怎么抓住得分格式？今天BayDue小编给大家总结一下！只要写好thesis，那么大家的essay也就成功另一半！
PS：这一期为了对大家在E ssay Thesis写作上有实质性帮助，所以全文文字较多略枯燥，但小编吐血推荐大家一定收藏起来，并耐心看完。研究透彻，一劳永逸，
What is a thesis?
Athesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove. （主题句说明你的观点和要论证的论点）
A good thesis statementmakes the difference between a thoughtful research project and asimple retelling of facts.（事实和论据不是主题句）
A thesisstatement is a sentence (or sentences) that expressesthe main ideas of your paper andanswers the question or questions posed by your paper.It offers your readersaquick and easy to follow summaryof what the paper will bediscussing andwhat you as a writer are setting outto tell them.The kind of thesis thatyour paper will have will depend on the purpose of your writing.【不要天马行空的华丽词藻铺垫，开门见山别客气！】
A goodtentative thesis will help you focus your search for information. But don’trush! You must do a lot of background reading before you know enough about asubject to identify key or essential questions. You may not know how you stand on an issue until youhave examined the evidence.You will likely begin your research witha working, preliminary or tentative thesis which you will continue to refineuntil you is certain of where the evidence leads.
The thesisstatement is typically locatedat the endofyour opening paragraph. (The opening paragraph serves to set the context forthe thesis.) 注意，这里明确的指出了，主题句（thesis statement）必须出现在开头段（opening paragraph）的最后！
“Remember, your reader will be looking for your thesis. Make it clear, strong, and easy tofind”
Attributes of a good thesis
A It should be contestable, proposing an arguable point with which people could reasonably disagree. Astrong thesis is provocative; it takes a stand andjustifies the discussion you will present.
A It tackles a subject thatcould be adequatelycovered in the format of theproject assigned
Alt isspecific and focused. A strong thesis proves a point without discussing”everything about. ” Insteadof music, think”American jazz in the 1930s” and your argument about it
▲ It clearlyasserts your own conclusion based on evidence.(记得是谁曾经说过 assert是个贬义?所以说,有了根据,再发表意见哦)Note: Be flexible. The evidence may lead you to a conclusion youdidn’t think you’d reach. It is perfectly okay tochange your thesis！
▲It should pass the So what? or Who cares? test(Would yourmost honest friend ask why he should care or respond with”but everyoneknows that”?)For instance, “people should avoid driving under theinfluence of alcohol, would be
unlikely to evoke any opposition.(不要说那些大家都知道的废话,要有可质疑性,可辩论性.)
▲附:什么是 the Sowhat? or Who cares?test
The So what? Test
Whenever you plan on writing a research paper, thereis an extremely importanpoint that you must constantly keep in the forefrontof your mind–even English teachers frequently mention it as something studentsfail to do time and time
again. What is it? To be sure to choose a topicworth arguing about or exploring.
This means to construct a thesisstatement or research question about a problem that is still debated, controversial, up in the air.
So arguing that drinking and driving is dangerous–while you could find a ton of evidence to support your view –would be prettyworthless nowadays Who would want to read something they already knew? Youwouldn’t be persuading them of anything and all your work would be prettymeaningless.
What this means is that during the topic-formulatingstage and againnow, always keep asking“So WHAT?,” WHO CAREs? or to paraphrase the famous Canadian journalist Barbara Frum: ” Tell me something new about something I care about. That will automatically make your paper significant and interesting bothfor you to write and the reader to study.
主题句的dos and don’ts
Specifictopic+ Attitude/Angle/Argument= Thesis
What youplan to argue + How you plan to argue it= Thesis
Try these five tests:
▲Does the thesis inspire areasonable reader to ask,”How? orWhy?”吸引读者思考
▲Would a reasonable reader NOT respondwith “Duh! ” or “So what? or”Gee, no kidding!”or” Who cares?”避免出现 so what问题
▲Does the thesis avoid generalphrasing and/or sweeping words such as”alor”none”or” every”?避免绝对的论调
▲Does the thesis lead the reader towardthe topic sentences(the subtopics needed to prove the thesis)?主题句是否引导了下文的分论点或者段主题?
▲Can the thesis be adequately developed inthe required length of the paper or project?主题句是否可以适合被展开论述?
If you cannot answer “YES” to thesequestions, what changes must you make in order for your thesis to pass thesetests ?
E-coli contaminationshould not happen
The causes of theCivil War were economic, social, and political
The Simpsons represents the greatestanimated show in the history of television.
The Simpsons treats the issues ofethnicity, family dynamics, and social issues effectively.
Often dismissedbecause it is animated, The Simpsons treats the issue of ethnic-ty morepowerfully than did the critically praised All In The Family.
Although manyparents of teens struggling with body image may blame television models andother such stars, these body issues and their disorders stem back to theirdaughters’ younger days of pigtails and Barbies.
Despite theirhigh-tech special effects, today’s graphically violent horror movies do notconvey the creative use of cinematography or the emotional impact that we sawin the classic horror films of the 1940s and 50s
Rank with justification 考虑重要性
Contrasts( of perspectives of sources)对比,考虑流行和反对观点
▲ Although newspapers at the time claimed. .. the most significantcause/explanation/reason, etc is
▲ While Sb. and sb. maintains that……, moreaccurately/ importantly, etc, #2s position is the stronger one.(Substitute”most historians for So and So and the appropriate person orview or source for #2.）
Perception versus reality;感觉与现实
I Although Turner himself may have believed X, thereal causes were Y and Z.
Good versus bad reasons：
I Historians generally list six reasons as the causefor X, but among these are four that are valid and two that are not.
Cause and effect:因果关系
Certainly, x was the cause and Y was its effect, but between the two are two other factors of equal importance
Separately the causes would have not necessarilyled to a rampage; however,together their effect was inevitablymurderous
Although the effects of the rampage were.., thecauses were understandable/justifiable/inevitable
The more important effects of Nat Turner’srebellion went beyond those of the local rampage
Nat Turner’s rebellion not a righteous response to theinjust of slavery；it was motivated purely by distribing psychologicalissues.
Whatshould the audience/reader do/feel/believe?
Whoare the major players on both/each side and how did theycontribute to
Whichare the most important?
Whatwas the impact of?
Canl compare? How is X like or unlike Y?
Whatif? Can I predict?
Howcould we solve/improve/design/deal with?
Is there a better solution to?
Howcan you defend?
What changes would you recommend to?
Wasit effective, justified, defensible, warranted?
Whydid this happen? Why did it succeed? Why did it fail?
Whatshould be? What are/would be the possible outcomes of?
Whatare the problems related to?
Whatwere the motives behind?
Whyare the opponents protesting?
Whatis my personal response to?
Whatcase can I make for?
Whatis the significance of?
Wherewill the next move(s)occur?
Howis this debate likely to affect?
Whatis the value or, what is/are the potential benefit(s)of?
Whatare three/four/five reasons for us to believe?
As you read look for
Exampleof brainstorming a thesis:
Select a topic television violence and children
▲ Ask aninteresting question: What are the effects oftelevision violence on children?
▲ Revisethe question into a thesis: Violence on television increases aggressive behavior in preschool children.
Remember thisargument is your “preliminary”or”working thesis. As you read you maydiscover evidence that may af-
t isokay to revise your thesis!(可以修改自己原来设定的主题,就是说通过对题目的理解和论据的权衡,修改主题以利于论证)
It isokay to revise your thesis!(可以修改自己原来设定的主题,就是说通过对题目的理解和论据的权衡,修改主题以利于论证)
论据: As you write and revise your paper, it’s okay tochange your thesis statement– sometimes youdon’t discover what you reallywant to say about atopic until you’ve started (or finished) writing! Justmakesure that your”final” thesis statement accurately shows what willhappen in your paper.
Createa list of sample questions to guide yourresearch:
How to Tell a Strong Thesis Sentence from a weak one
1. A strong thesis takes somesort of stand明确表明立场
Remember that your thesis needsto show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing apaper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popularweightloss product to evaluate. Here are two thesis statements
There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.
This is a weak thesis. First. itfails to take a stand. second the phrase”negative and positive aspects”isvague
Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weightloss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses apotential danger to customers.
This is a strong thesis becauseit takes a stand
2 A strong thesis justifiesdiscussion留给大家质疑和讨论的余地
Your thesis should IndIcate thepoInt of the discusslon. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinshipsystems, using your ownfamily as an example, you might come up with either ofthese twothesis statements：
My family is an extended family
This is a weak thesis because itstates an observation Your reader won t be able to tell the point of thestatement, and will probably stop reading
While most American families would view consanguinealmarriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian
families, like my own, helieve that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in anextended family
This is a strong thesis becauseit shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A goodstrategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic iscontroversial Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay tosee how you support your point.
3 A strong thesis expresses one main idea表达一个主要观点
Readers need to be able to seethat your paper has one mainpoint. If your thesis expresses more than oneidea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper.
Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and web pages can provide both advertising and customer suppoort.
This is a weak thesis statemen because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on theInternet or webpages To revise the thesis, the relationship between the twoldeas needs to become more clear. One way torevise the thesis would be to write：
Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketingpotential, companies should exploit thispotential by using webpages that offer both advertising and customer support.
This is a strong thesis becauseit shows that the two ideas are re-lated. Hint: a great many clear and engagingthesis statements contain words like” because, since, ” “so, although, “”unlessd however,
4. A strong thesis s:a: ement isspecific具体而不拍象
A thesis statement should showexacthy what your paper will beabout, and will help you keep your paper to manageable topic.
For example, if you write a paper on hunger, you might say：
World hunger has many causes and effects.
This is a weak thesis statementfor two major reasons. First，”world hunger” can’t be discussed thoroughly infive or ten
pages. Second, “many causes and effects” is vague. You should be able to identify specific causesand effects. A revised thesis might look like this:
Hunger persists in Appalachia hecause johs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable
This is a strong thesis becauseit narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.
Iwould like to become a chef when i finish school
Althoughboth chefs and cooks can prepare fine meals, chefs differ from cooks ineducation, professional commitment, and artistry
enjoy white water rafting.
Afirst water rafting experience can challenge the body and spiritand transforman adolescent into an adult
OurAmerican family structure encourages men to repress their true feelings, leaving them open to physical, psychological, and relationship difficulties
Steroids, even those legally available, are addictive and should bebanned from sports
Hiphop is the best thing that has happened to music in twenty ears
Thoughmany people dismiss hip hop as offensive, hip hop music offers urban youth animportant opportunity for artistic expression,and allows them to articulatethe poetry of the street
Manypeople object to today’ s violent horror movies
Despitetheir high-tech special effects, today s graphically violent horror movies donot convey the creative use of cinematography or the emotional impact that wesaw in the classic horror films of the 1940s and 50s