学术写作skr什么东西?

baydue reading 80x80 - 学术写作skr什么东西?
留学生怎样高效阅读学术文献?
2018年8月14日
essay word game 80x80 - 学术写作skr什么东西?
写Essay其实就像在玩文字游戏
2018年8月16日

学术写作 (Academic Writing),是困扰我们中国留学生的一大难题。学术写作要写很复杂吗?不要!学术写作一定要长句和复杂词汇吗?不要!与此相反,学术写作的要求是 to be clear and concise in order to aid the reader’s understanding. 我们要的是,清晰简洁!下文中Baydue小编就来和大家好好说道说道这academic writing.

第一步

Identifying purpose and reader

目的和读者

是的,先搞清楚:你,要写什么?你,要写给谁看?
写什么?题目本身就是给你定好的,所以你不要写偏题,不要漏回答问题就好。

第二步

Structuring Academic Writing

打结构

在结构部分,又分为俩小部分:

1.总体结构

Most writing will still follow the same overall structure: a beginning, middle and end. 也就是学术写作常见的:introduction, main body, conclusion

The introduction outlines the main direction the writing will take, giving any necessary background information and context, defining any specific terms and indicating any boundaries the content will operate within. 文章的总体方向,背景,术语介绍。(开头段:背景介绍 + 题目改述 + 总体观点)

In the main body each point is presented, explored and developed. This must be set out in a logical order, to make it easier for the reader to follow and understand. 观点的呈现,阐述和支持。必须要有严谨的逻辑,清晰明了。(主体段:观点列举 + 分别阐述论证)

The conclusion brings together the main points, highlighting the most important. This should be the key message or argument you want the reader to take away. It may also identify any gaps or weaknesses in the arguments or ideas presented, and can recommend further research or investigation where appropriate. 主要观点的总结,以及指出研究仍存在的不足和对未来研究的建议。(结尾段:总结重申观点 + 主题升华)

2.段落结构

You can use paragraphs to build and structure your argument, separating each of your points into a different paragraph. Your point should be made clear in the first or second sentence of the paragraph to make it easier for the reader to follow the line of reasoning.总体结构有了之后,对于每一段的结构,我们希望一个观点单独成段,独立论证,这样清晰明了(学术论文如果单独段落论证篇章太长,也可以再细分小段)。每一段的中心句,尽量都放在段首句或二句,直接表明观点,别瞎bb.

第三步

Ordering your points

整理你的观点

所谓整理你的观点,我的意思就是,不管是在心里还是在草稿纸上,你得先搞清楚你要把你的砖和瓦怎么摆明白。打结构你已经知道了,拿什么东西填进去,了解一下,简而言之吧,大概是这样几个步骤:

  1. Know what you want to say before you start writing
  2. Create a list of your main points
  3. Link the facts, evidence and data you have with each point
  4. Separate your points into groups
  5. Put your groups, and the points within your groups, into an order
  6. Revise, edit and proofread your work

解释一下,首先你要知道你想写什么;其次把你想写的主要的观点都列出来;再把每一个观点要用的支持的事实,证据,数据都尽可能写下来,也许你要用说理论证,你要举例论证,你要对比论证,你要反证,OK,write them down;再把相似的观点,或者按照一定的分类编成组;把这些大组按照逻辑排好顺序,包括组内的观点也一样要有清晰逻辑;最后检查你的文章!

baydue academic writing service - 学术写作skr什么东西?

第四步

Language and style

语言和风格

上面已经分析过学术写作的大体准备,但是还有非常重要的一环,就是在我们下笔写的过程当中,遣词造句常常会表现得 not so academic. 我们来看一下,如何才能够显得比较 academic.

1.Be concise简洁

BayDue小编有这么几个小tips给大家:

  • Only include one main idea per sentence
  • Keep your sentences to a reasonable length (generally not more than 25 words).
  • Avoid repetition
  • Avoid using redundant words.

一句话一个意思,不要尝试写太多东西。OK,academic writing是要show off你的英文水平,但是不要写巨巨巨长的句子!不要有repetition,有时候我们会在同学的作文当中看见,一个自然段反反复复写了好几次同样的东西,NO!最后,不要使用多余的词 (redundant words),用词尽量精简,举例:

  • due to the fact that ❎ because ✅
  • employed the use of ❎ used ✅
  • basic fundamentals ❎ fundamentals ✅
  • completely eliminate ❎ eliminate ✅
  • alternative choices ❎ alternatives ✅
  • in as few words as possible ❎ concisely ✅

打叉❎并不是说明都是错的,而是说在学术写作当中,不是很合适,例如due to the fact that,当然也有误用的,例如eliminate本身已经表示是”完全清除“,comepletely eliminate显得画蛇添足了。

2.Use formal language使用正式语言

In academic writing you are expected to use formal language as opposed to colloquial or informal language.

看见colloquial依旧想起了被导师Juliet支配的恐(xian)惧(qi), 即便是很自信自己写作的Jason,也偶尔在邮件中被提醒”avoid using colloquial words..blablabla…”好,感谢朱丽叶,继续提升了我的学术写作造诣!

怎样才算是 formal language:

  1. Avoid using colloquialisms or slang terms such as ‘sort of’ or ‘basically’. Instead you could use ‘somewhat’ or ‘fundamentally’ 口语,俚语不行呢!
  2. Write words out in full rather than contracting (or shortening) them. For example, instead of writing ‘don’t’ or’ isn’t’ you would be expected to write ‘do not’ or ‘is not’ 不要写缩写,不要写缩写…
  3. The use of clichés is not appropriate in academic writing. These are phrases such as ‘at the end of the day’ or ‘in the nick of time.’ Instead of this you might write finally or at the critical moment 不要有clichés, 例如 at the end of the day, 直接说 finally
  4. 全球通用的可以写缩写,比如 NBA, KFC, 而CET-4 不行。而某些词汇因为在文章中可能会多次提到,为了避免赘述,可以写缩写,但是,首次出现必须写出全拼,并在后面括号明示,此后可以仅用缩写。例如: …work life balance (WLB)… Therefore, WLB plays a great role in…
3.Active voice vs. passive voice合理使用被动

The passive voice is often used in academic writing as it is seen as more impersonal and therefore more objective.

因为被动语态更加不带感情色彩和更加客观的特点,学术写作常常鼓励多使用被动来体现学术成果的严肃性。

4.Demonstrate balance in your writing话术不要太绝对

Research, ideas and arguments should always be open to being challenged, so it is important that the language you use acknowledges this.

学术研究,本身就是要开诚布公,也欢迎各界的挑战和指正,我们没有办法保证自己100%的正确,所以在用词上,一定要注意自己的措辞,不要过于绝对化。

介绍hedges 和 boosters 给大家认识:

Hedges 指的是避免过于绝对化作答而用的词

When writing, be careful of using words such as ‘definitely’ or ‘proves’. Ask yourself whether your statement is a fact or whether there may be some doubt either now or in the future. 既然我们的文章需要被认可也被继续挑战和超越,用词要谦逊…

我们可以用:

§ This suggests….

§ It is possible that…

§ A possible explanation…

§ Usually…

§ Sometimes…

§ Somewhat…

试比较:

1️⃣ Research proves that drinking a large volume of fizzy drinks containing sugar leads to the development of type II diabetes.

2️⃣ Research suggests that high consumption of fizzy drinks containing sugar may contribute to the development of type II diabetes.

Boosters使用在你想表示一定程度的确定性作结论时

§ Clearly (only use if you are certain it is clear)

§ There is a strong correlation…

§ Results indicate…

以下是两个用的不错的例子:

1️⃣ Research suggests that high consumption of fizzy drinks containing sugar may contribute to the development of type II diabetes.

2️⃣ Research indicates a clear link between the high consumption of a large volume of fizzy drinks containing sugar and the development of type II diabetes.

5.signalling words标记词(信号词)

Academic Writing要求我们要展示良好的逻辑,上下文,句子内,句子间要体现好的cohesion, 那么就从运用得当的逻辑词,连接词中来,这样也利于考官一眼就看见体现清晰逻辑的用词,简直可以说,就是给分的信号词。

递进:furthermore, moreover, additionally…

类比:similarly, in comparison…

对比:In contrast, and yet, although…

转折:but, yet, however…

结果:consequently, as a result, therefore…

强调:particularly, significantly…

6.Tense时态
  1. 一般事实或已知事实,用一般现在。eg:”Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in the blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly.” (Diabetes UK, 2015)
  2. 曾经你做过的研究和实验,涉及时间关系的,用过去一般。eg:”Our experiment showed wide variations in results where the variable was altered even slightly.”
  3. 如果你引用别人的结论,研究成果,用一般现在。这是因为相当于在引用已知事实。eg:”Smith’s research from 2012 finds that regular exercise may contribute to good cardiovascular health.”
  4. 写结论,实验研究的结果用一般现在。eg: “In this case there is not a large difference between the two diameter values…
  5. 引用图表数据,用一般现在。eg: “These figures show that the number of birds visiting the hide increase every year in May…”.

最后一步

Proofreading your own work

检查你的文章

是的,到了最后一步,在写作练习的时候,请重复之前步骤,再次检查你的文章。基于篇幅的限制,还有一些更加具体的部分没有完全写上来,但这基本就是学术写作的精髓了。检查你的spelling,检查你的grammar,检查你的punctuation(标点),如果你自己不行的话,欢迎大家联系我们的网站客服,Baydue英文论文精修润色服务沿用双重审议模式,1v1互动编辑,免费售后无限次修改,满意为止。学术写作是一件严肃的事情,practice makes perfect.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注