留学生怎样高效阅读学术文献?

baydue Essay Writing Skill 80x80 - 留学生怎样高效阅读学术文献?
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baydue reading - 留学生怎样高效阅读学术文献?

Reading is one of the essential activities of studying. During your course you will have to :

阅读是学习过程中最重要的活动之一,在你的学习过程中,你需要:

  • Do a lot of reading.
  • 大量阅读。
  • Read difficult material.
  • 阅读艰涩的文章。
  • Try to remember what you have read.
  • 记住你读过的内容。

This study guide will suggest ways for you to improve your reading skills and to read in a more focused and selective manner. To improve your reading skills you need to:

这一学习指南将介绍一些提高阅读水平的技巧,为了提高阅读水平,你需要:

  • Have clear reading goals.
  • 有明确的阅读目标。
  • Choose the right texts.
  • 选择正确的文章。
  • Use active reading techniques
  • 使用积极的阅读技巧。
  • Use the appropriate reading method.
  • 使用合适的阅读方法。

1. Reading Goals

阅读目标

Before starting to read you need to consider why you are reading and what you are trying to learn and to vary the way you read accordingly.

在开始阅读之前,你应该思考一下,你为什么阅读?你希望从阅读中学到什么?你通过阅读能在哪些方面获得提升?

If you are reading for general interest and to acquire background information for lectures you may want to read the topic widely but with not much depth.

如果是因为一般的兴趣或者是为了获取讲座的背景信息而阅读,你可能需要广泛地阅读主题性文章而不是深度文章。

If you are reading for an essay you will need to focus the reading around the essay question and may need to study a small area of the subject in great depth. Jot down the essay question and don’t get side-tracked and waste time on non-relevant issues.

如果你是为了写专业论文而阅读,那么你需要围绕与专业论文相关的问题阅读,并且深入学习这一细分领域的相关内容。记下自己不懂的地方,不要在不相关的问题上浪费时间。

2. Selecting reading materials

选择阅读材料

It is unlikely that you will be able – or be expected – to read all the books and articles on your reading-list. You will be limited by time and by the availability of the material.

阅读完你清单上所有的书与文章是不可能或者说不现实的,因为时间不够,有些材料也无法获取。

(1)To decide whether a book is relevant and useful:判断一本书是否有用或者相关:

  • Look at the author’s name, the title and the date of publication. Is it essential reading? Is it out of date?
  • 查看作者的名字、文章名称以及出版日期。文章是否值得阅读?文章是否已经过时?
  • Read the publisher’s blurb on the cover or look through the editor’s introduction to see whether it is relevant.
  • 阅读封面上出版社的简介或者阅读编辑介绍来判断这本书是否与自己关心的议题相关。
  • Look at the contents page. Does it cover what you want? Is it at the right level? Are there too few pages on the topic – or too many?
  • 阅读目录页。这本书是否涵盖了你关心的议题?是否在合适的水平上?书中与你感兴趣的议题相关的内容是过少还是过多?
  • Look through the introduction to get an idea of the author’s approach.
  • 阅读文献介绍来了解作者的研究方法。
  • Look up an item in the index (preferably something you know a bit about) and read through one or two paragraphs to see how the author deals with the material.
  • 在索引中查找某一条目(最好是你也了解一点的)并通过阅读一两段,看看作者是如果处理这些材料的。
  • Look though the bibliography to see the range of the author’s sources.
  • 查找相关的文献来确定作者引文的来源和范围。
  • Are the examples, illustrations, diagrams etc. easy to follow and helpful for your purpose?
  • 文中的案例、插画、图表等是否能够帮助你解决疑惑?

(2)To select useful articles from journals or research papers:从期刊或者研究论文中筛选有用的文章:

  • Read the summary or abstract. Is it relevant?
  • 阅读文章的总结或摘要,是否与自己关心的议题相关?
  • Look at the Conclusions and skim-read the Discussion, looking at headings. Is it worth reading carefully because it is relevant or interesting?
  • 阅读文章的结论并跳读文章讨论的内容,看一看文章的标题,来判断文章有趣或者相关而值得一读呢?
  • Look through the Introduction. Does it summarise the field in a helpful way? Does it provide a useful literature review?
  • 阅读文章的前言,看它是否简明、有效地总结了相关领域?是否提供了有用的文献综述?
  • Unless you have loads of time, only read the whole article if one or more of the following is satisfied:
  • 除非你有充裕的时间,否则应只在文章满足以下一条或多条要求时,才通读全文:
  • – It is a seminal piece of work – essential reading.
  • 这是一篇开创性文章——非常值得阅读。
  • – It is highly relevant to your essay, etc.
  • 与你要撰写的文章高度相关等。
  • – It is likely that you can get ideas from it.
  • 你很可能能从这篇文章中获得灵感。
  • – There is nothing else available and you are going to have to make the most of this.
  • 没有其他合适阅读的文章,你准备充分利用这篇文章。
  • – It is so exciting that you can’t put it down!
  • 文章太有意思,让人难以放下。

(3)Where to start if there is no reading list如果你手头没有阅读清单,你应该从哪里开始?

  • Use the library website and look up subject guides and resources
  • 利用图书馆的网站查询学科指南和资源说明。
  • Find a general textbook on the subject.
  • 找一本相关学科的综述式课本阅读。
  • Use encyclopaedias and subject based dictionaries.
  • 查询百科全书和专业词典。
  • Do a web search BUT stay focused on your topic AND think about the reliability of the web sites.
  • 进行互联网检索,但要专注于你的主题,同时注意网站的可靠性。
  • Browse the relevant shelves in the library and look for related topics.
  • 去图书馆相关议题的区域浏览、寻找。
  • Ask your tutor for a suggestion for where to start.
  • 向自己的导师寻求建议。

3. Active Reading

积极阅读

Keep focused on your reading goal. One way to do this is to ask questions as you read and try to read actively and creatively. It is a good idea to think of your own subject related questions but the following may be generally useful:

专注于你的阅读目标。这样做的一个方法就是在你阅读的时候问问题并且尝试积极、创新地阅读。在阅读的时候提出与主题相关的问题是一个好办法。但是,下面提到的这些通用问题也能提供一定的帮助。

(1)Collecting information收集信息

  • What do I want to know about?
  • 我想知道些什么?
  • What is the main idea behind the writing?
  • 写作的主旨思想是什么?
  • What conclusions can be drawn from the evidence?
  • 从这些资料里面能够得出什么样的结论?
  • In research, what are the major findings?
  • 研究中最主要的发现是什么?

(2)Questioning the writing对文章内容提出疑问

  • What are the limitations or flaws in the evidence?
  • 文章论据的局限和缺点是什么?
  • Can the theory be disproved or is it too general?
  • 文中提到的理论是否可以被证明或者太过于普通?
  • What examples would prove the opposite theory?
  • 什么样的案例能够证明相反的理论?
  • What would you expect to come next?
  • 猜一猜接下来的内容是什么?
  • What would you like to ask the author?
  • 你会问作者什么问题?

(3)Forming your own opinion形成你自己的观点

  • How does this fit in with my own theory/beliefs?
  • 这如何与我自己的理论/想法相一致?
  • Is my own theory/beliefs still valid?
  • 自己的理论/意见是否仍站得住脚?

4. Different reading techniques

不同的阅读技巧

Your reading speed is generally limited by your thinking speed. If ideas or information requires lots of understanding then it is necessary to read slowly. Choosing a reading technique must depend upon why you are reading:

你的阅读速度通常是被你的思考速度所限制。如果观点或信息需要更多的时间去消化和理解,那么你需要读慢一点。选择哪种阅读技巧必须立足于你为什么阅读:

  • To enjoy the language or the narrative.
  • 为了享受语言或者故事之美。
  • As a source of information and/or ideas.
  • 作为信息或者观点、创意的来源。
  • To discover the scope of a subject – before a lecture, seminar or research project.
  • 在演讲、研讨会或者研究项目开始之前探索一门学科的研究范围。
  • To compare theories or approaches by different authors or researchers.
  • 为了比较不同作者、研究人员的理论或者研究方法。
  • For a particular piece of work e.g. essay, dissertation.…
  • 为了某项特殊的工作,例如专业论文、学术论文等……

(1)Scanning浏览阅读

  • To search for particular information or to see if a passage is relevant :
  • 使用这一技巧,通常是为了寻找特定的信息或者是判断这篇文章是否有用:
  • Look up a word or subject in the index or look for the chapter most likely to contain the required information.
  • 在索引中寻找词语或科目,或者查找最有可能包含所需信息的段落。
  • Use a pencil and run it down the page to keep your eyes focusing on the search for key words.
  • 用一只铅笔在你看的这页勾画确保你的眼睛聚焦于你寻找的关键词之上。

(2)Skim reading略读

  • To quickly gain an overview, familiarise yourself with a chapter or an article or to understand the structure for later note-taking.
  • 为了记录笔记,应迅速获得文章概览,让自己熟悉章节、文章或者了解文章结构:
  • Don’t read every word.
  • 不要逐字阅读。
  • Do read summaries, heading and subheadings.
  • 一定要阅读摘要、标题和副标题。
  • Look at tables, diagrams, illustrations, etc.
  • 看文章内的表格、图表、插图等。
  • Read first sentences of paragraphs to see what they are about.
  • 阅读段落的第一句,看看它们写的是什么。
  • If the material is useful or interesting, decide whether just some sections are relevant or whether you need to read it all.
  • 如果这些材料是有用的或者有趣的,再决定你是只读一部分还是通读全文。

(3)Reflective or critical reading反思性或批判性阅读

  • Reading it all carefully using active reading techniques
  • 使用积极阅读技巧仔细阅读全篇文章。
  • Think about the questions you want to answer.
  • 考虑下你想要回答的问题。
  • Read actively in the search for answers.
  • 积极阅读寻找答案。
  • Look for an indication of the chapter’s structure or any other “map” provided by the author.
  • 寻找本章的结构指示或者任何由作者提供的“地图”。
  • Follow through an argument by looking for:
  • 通过跟进论点寻找以下内容:
  • – Its structure: main point, subpoints, reasons, qualifications, evidence, examples…
  • 它的(文章)结构主论点、分论点、原因、资格、证明、案例……
  • – “Signposts” –sentences or phrases to indicate the structure e.g. “There are three main reasons, Firstly.. Secondly.. Thirdly..” or to emphasise the main ideas e.g. “Most importantly..” “To summarise..”
  • 标志物——表明文章结构的句子或短语,例如“主要有三个原因,第一是,第二是,第三是”或者强调主要观点的,如“最重要的是”“简而言之”。
  • – Connecting words which may indicate separate steps in the argument e.g. “but”, “on the other hand”, “furthermore”, “however”..
  • 连词可以表明论点的步骤,例如“但是”、“另一方面”、“然而”等。
  • After you have read a chunk, make brief notes remembering to record the page number as well as the complete reference (Author, title, date, journal/publisher, etc)
  • 在你阅读完大量文章后,做简要笔记来记录页码以及完整的参考文献信息(如作者、题目、日期、期刊名称和出版社等)。
  • At the end of the chapter or article put the book aside and go over your notes, to ensure that they adequately reflect the main points.
  • 完成文献阅读后再检查一遍笔记,保证笔记准确记录了如下文章要点:
  • – How has this added to your knowledge?
  • 这篇文章怎如何扩展了你的知识面?
  • – Will it help you to make out an argument for your essay?
  • 它能帮助你找到一个论文论题么?
  • – Do you agree with the arguments, research methods, evidence..?
  • 你是否同意文中的观点、研究方法、论据等?

(4)Rapid reading快速阅读

  • Check that you are not mouthing the words – it will slow you down
  • 注意不要出声阅读——这会降低你的阅读速度
  • Do not stare at individual words – let your eyes run along a line stopping at every third word. Practise and then lengthen the run until you are stopping only four times per line, then three times, etc.
  • 不要盯着一个单词——一开始可以让你的眼睛每三个词一停,多加练习,然后每行仅停顿四次,然后只停顿三次,依次练习。
  • The more you read, the faster you will become as you grow more familiar with specialist vocabulary, academic language and reading about theories and ideas. So keep practising…
  • 你阅读的越多,你阅读的就越快。然后你就会变得对特定的词汇表、学术语言以及相关理论和观点越来熟悉。所以要不断练习。
  • Make an individual appointment to see a University Study Adviser.
  • 与大学学习顾问私下请教交流。

1 评论

  1. 橘座说道:

    mark!很实用了!每次写essay的时候文献都能要我半条老命!

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