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在学术英语写作或翻译中,有五个语言问题需要注意。

第一,避免使用缩略语。

类似于“don’t”、“can’t”和“won’t”等词不可使用缩略语,必须使用完整形式“do not”、“cannot”和“will not”。

第二,避免使用口语词汇。

口语词汇有时候无法体现学术文本的精确性,也不够正式。

如:退休是大多数人迟早要面对的。Retirement is something most of us must face sooner or later. 这句话的翻译比较口语化,在学术文本中,应使用相对正式的表达:Retirement is inevitable.

口语表达 正式表达
Above board Legitimate
Reached  a happy medium Reached  an acceptable compromise
Get through it Survive, penetrate
Part and parcel Intrinsic to
Easier  said than done More  difficult in practice
Beyond  a shadow of doubt Definitely
In recent years Recently
Pay lip service to Support  through words but not through actions
Got out of hand Was  no longer under control
A stumbling block Point of contention
Explored  every avenue Investigated  alternatives

第三,避免使用省略语。

省略语如“and so forth”、“and so on”和“etc.”等尽量少用甚至不用,尽量将句子意思表达完整。

例1: 护士必须考虑患者在过敏、药物使用和医疗条件等因素影响下的饮食需要。

译文1: Nurses must take into consideration patients’ dietary needs resulting from allergies, medication, medical conditions and so on.

译文2: Nurses must take into consideration patients’ dietary needs resulting from allergies, medication and medical conditions.

例2: 公共交通工具包括在公路、航空和水路上使用的公共运输工具。

译文1: Public transport includes vehicles for public use on the roads, airways, waterways etc.

译文2: Public transport includes vehicles for public use, such as buses, trainsand aeroplanes.

第四,避免使用修辞行问句。

在中文翻译为英文时,应该尽量将修辞性的问句转换为陈述句。

例1: 工业用地导致大量环境污染,那么为什么我们还要使用呢?

译文1: Industrial sites cause vast amounts of environmental pollution, so why do we still use them?

译文2: The question surrounding the continued use of industrial sites, given their vast pollution production, still remains.

例2: 什么是团队?团队可以是一个人,但常常会发展成很多人。

译文1: What is a team? A team can be one person but will usually end up including many more.

译文2: A teamcan include one person but usually involves many more.

例3: 但问题是,“设计学校模式”可以为制定策略提供切实的解决方案吗?

译文1: The question is, however, does the “Design School Model” provide a practical solution to the problem of how to formulate strategy?

译文2: It is questionable whether the “Design School Model” provides a practical solution to the problem of strategy formulation.

第五,避免将副词置于句首或句尾。

在学术性文体中,副词应置于动词词组之间,而不是放在句首或句尾。

例1: 那么解决方案就可以被丢弃了。

译文1: Then the solution can be discarded.

译文2: The solution can then be discarded.

例2: 血液被慢慢抽了出来。

译文1: The blood is withdrawn slowly.

译文2: The blood is slowly withdrawn.

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